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SLASH AND BURN

"Slash and burn" cultivation culture has formed Europeans. Slash and burn culture according to Per Martin Tvengsberg influenced European culture over perhaps 10,000 years and thus have evolutionary consequences for its descendants. Regular stationary agriculture has only been around for one to two thousand years and therefore not as strong impact.

 

And this is not much research on! Perhaps because of insufficient archaeological material? But it is no less possible that his theories are correct for that reason.

 

The current prevailing theory that we went from being hunters and gatherers to suddenly engage stationary agricultural overnight. How likely is that?

 

Is Per Martin Tvengsberg coming with a missing link here? He supports his theories with incredible exciting reports far back as it is possible to get: Homer, Cesar, Tacitus, Ibn Rustah etc. There must be a huge effort in just finding these sources.

 

His approach was in itself being a descendant of people from that culture. The more he drilled into the material, he began to see possible connections with other tracks that were almost wiped out of time.

 

This publication may be quoted and used. Copyright rules dictate that the source reference is given. Author's address: Per Martin Tvengsberg, Warangu Mois EE-46231 Varangu Estonia, E-mail: warangu@gmail.com. Publisher: Finnish Norwegian Forest Museum. N0-2639 Grue Finnskog. E-mail: post@skogfinskmuseum.no

 

Foreword

 

Finnforest culture has its roots to the east, and are found throughout the northern Eur-Asia. Shifting cultivation was the main survival of the forest finns. Shifting cultivation was a very land-intensive farming method, resulting in a constant need for new areas. This was the reason for the migration which slowly spread westward. They searched for more new forests, and they needed spruce forest of good quality. Forest finns came to Norway in the 1620 - 1630 years. They first settled in the border forest to Sweden, but spread further into the eastern part of Telemark in the west. It is registered Forest Finn settlements in 40 municipalities in Hedmark, Oppland, Oslo, Akershus, Østfold and Telemark counties.

Slash and burn shifting cultivation

Shifting cultivation in Finnskogen is the basis for this study. As a descendant of Finnskog affiliations, this topic has always been of interest to me. When I learned the letters, I read on the back of a book in the living room at home; ”Kansatieteellinen Arkisto”. Father told me to ask my grandmother, when I eagerly wanted to know what this meant, but she only tried to calm me down by saying that it was probably something mysterious Finnish. It may also be that this is an inadequate presentation of shifting cultivation and so a hypothetical presentation. But I am of the opinion that bold hypotheses are far preferable to no hypotheses at all. If someone were to prove that my speculations are not right, then I am the first to wish this welcome. Hypotheses have to be tested, otherwise one can never obtain new knowledge, and it is the ambition of my foray to get into the unknown and exciting past.

The terminology

The terminology in shifting / swidden literature is often confusing and inconsistent. I would recommend Spencer's comments (Spencer 1966 6) and Appendix B (Spencer 1966 175), which treats this terminology. English literature using the "slash-and-burn / shifting cultivation". Shifting cultivation means change of place, and the cultivation refers most often in the older literature a simpler agriculture than "agriculture" means, without further argumentation or reflection on the matter. "Swidden" is rarely used in current literature, and is completely omitted in several recent dictionaries.

Definitions

I therefore consider it necessary, to present three definitions:

Shifting cultivation

Shifting cultivation here means the cultivation of hominids and later human food crops on freshly burned vegetation area, forest, within fewer number of years than the time period the same area is left to natural regeneration (Conklin 1961 27).

This is the oldest form of food production as proto humans have developed it over millions of years. Shifting cultivation is during this long span of time developed into a complex process, requiring the coordinated interaction of a larger group of people. This way of life can be traced back to Africa and / or China, where the forerunners of Homo erectus (the erect man) had its nascent rise of more than five million years ago. Later they spread out across the world, including northern Europe for less than a million years ago. But it is much less than a million years ago Homo sapiens (the man who knows and can) came from Africa to Eurasia. They were then knowledgeable and experienced people already. Shifting cultivation is highly community-forming. The smallest unit was the clan, the cultivation team, and several clans often co-operated. The manager, kuningas, had many functions, it was not only practical, but also political and religious. Cultivation was mobile; the clan moved to new forests to burn and grow food crops. They had no monumental construction. It is therefore difficult to trace any archaeological them, even with experience from the study of Terra Preta (charcoal-rich soil). The swidden ranged from a single one on the site, to a periodic settlement, punctuated by a moderately long abandonment. This rest period was required for the necessary forest regrowth. Survays of mountain caves and other natural favorable settlements, has revealed many cultural layers upon each other with natural forest regrow in between. This stratigraphy reprecent the culture development. Here I will in random order just mention a few such places: Catalhöyük in Turkey, Altamira in northern Spain, Jericho in Israel, Kostenki Voronezh in Russia, Skara Brea on Orkeney and the cave Vistehola at Jären in Norway.

Nowadays we are accustomed to stationary conditions, and to excess, we are trainde and raised in the European tradition, who considered shifting cultivation as a simple, primitive form of life without significant cultural organization. This attitude is probably the reason why researchers have been staying not interested in shifting cultivation. There are many common features that characterize the different shifting cultivations, so-called "primitive, self taught" moves.

They were nomads who want to have a few things to carry, but the skills and knowledge was not a heavy load. Shifting cultivation is the foundation of today's society, our values, customs, ideas and conventions.

Arable farming is too young for that it may have influenced in any significant degree on the development of mankind's history, yet still our daily life is dominated by its manifestations. It is mainly the tropical rainforest, which today has shifting cultivation, and they are in decline.

" The oldest of all farming methods is shifting cultivation. - It has been in Sweden since oldest times and it seems in every subject mentionable the farer back we come in time. It is the oldest system of all cultivation, at least on forested areas, if it is for the gras to grow or for human food production "(1923 Arenander 99). "Kauran Karjalan ahoille, Rukeheni Ruotsin maalle,-Vehnät viskoan Virohon - Kylvän ohrat Suomen maalle - Hernehet Hämehen maalle - Jost Vilja virtoavi - Vilja vierahan kätehen" (Kaukonen 1984 II, 252); Oats in Karelia svedjer - Rye on Swedish land - Hveat returns Estonia – Barley grows on Suomi fields - peas on Hämä fields, - Here the grain flows, - The grain is always next.

Stationary shifting cultivation

Stationary shifting cultivation is continuous cultivation of food crops on burned vegetation remaining after the previous season's harvest at particular locations processed. Example of shifting cultivation is stationary Levada systems for the regulation of water supply from the hills above. Other examples are the use of the warm moist day air, which condenses and gives off water when nighttime air is forced up the slopes and cool off. This was the shifting cultivation also artificially constructed sloping "terrain", as in the hanging gardens, pyramids (pühä raamid), Ziggurat and other monumental often cone-shaped plant (Haut). Megalithic monuments in Nabta Playa in Sudan are among the oldest major human constructions.

In Western Europe there are remains of megalithic monuments, Stonehenge and Salisbury on the Walls Durringham plains in Wales, stone rows at Carnac in France and Palaggiu in Corsica , to name a few large facilities that has been in use until ca.1500 BC. The stationary shifting cultivation is very diverse and complex, but it is easy to find in the landscape. Therefore, many more branches of science come into activity here than in the study of nomadic cultivation.

Field cultivation

Field cultivation is growing crops on burned, cleared, and since the annual mechanically cultivated soil, or soil that is enriched by periodical floods or other natural reason. River Valleys as the Euphrates and Tigris in Mesopotamia, the Nile in Egypt, the Indus in India, the Yangtze and the Yellow River in China are examples of this.

Field users today have little or no knowledge of this way of clearing. This is often far back in the past, and is thus irrelevant to his daily work. It does not affect the livelihood, unless he breaks new ground.

The plow

Human plowing and harrowing of the soil is the youngest of the three cultivation methods . Around 1300 BC Indo-Aryans expanded to west Asia Minor and the Balkans and continued on into Europe. On his way he learned to melt the iron of the Hittites. The European Iron Age begins approx. 800 BC Herodotus (484-425 BC) tells the legend of the Scythians who received the plow sent from heaven.

Iron plow was going to revolutionize agriculture. The individual field user has full responsibility for food production without the necessary cooperation with the neighbor. The individual's ethics and morals, but also power was decisive. Individual awareness of responsibility, sin and salvation, and therefore believe emerged. The belief in and respect for a Savior / God prevails, a belief as a necessary correction in the survival process. Agriculture religion becomes a monotheistic religion. It requires a personal faith, I believe in one God. It is still required resources in terms of land, knowledge and labor, but in addition it is necessary to introduce new laws, because it eventually would have been chaotic with no new rules of human coexistence. The old mobile society , with its rituals and social systems were totally transformed by the transition to agriculture.

The Mediterranean

This happened at the Mediterranean before the time of the Roman Empire, and north of the of the Alps the change came somewhat later.

Ergot affected the division of Central Europe

 

After a long period of use of the same soil, a deadly fungal disease was flourishing up, ergot, spesial sharply in the area that is now France - Germany. It is even claimed that it affected the division of Central Europe in the two kingdoms. Ergot spread to England and further north in Europe, and can be a strong contributing factor to Greenland depopulation in the late Middle Ages. Rye was particularly exposed to this infectious fungal attack, but it will be discussed later in this publication.

Many cultural elements from shifting cultivation followed into the agricultural community

Many cultural elements from shifting cultivation followed into the agricultural community. People need their social environments to confirm their identity. The old functions made new features similar tasks; the swidden leader was the chief, the Almighty, violent leader that everyone had to obey. The axman serf was a farmer on a parcel of allotted land, after the great families' leaders had distributed the land among themselves, and the weakest were slaves. The crop was divided as before. The farmer was usually retain a third of the crop, or one fifth of irrigated land. This became the basis for a new social stratification and specialization of different groups in the new society. Community was not so including anymore, and various groups came into conflict with each other for the right to own land. Shifting power alliances ensured political stability in order to avoid being conquered or to conquer. Much of the iron was spent on war instead of food production. Earlier stone tools had not been staying usable in combat.

Materialism became a driving force

Materialism became a driving force, and title was a power factor, which necessitated the enforcement of new rules to curb fighting. Merger of small kingdoms, based on political strategy, it was common practice. New organizational and legal / social structures occurred around Europe. This was most recently here in the north, such as. in the Malar region (Hyen Strand 1974).

It was Christianity First Non entry in the Viking Age

It was Christianity First Non entry in the Viking Age. The church was dependent on a strong field operation, before it could succeed with an individual personal faith in the White Christ. A very large variation within swidden methodes has evolved over time , depending on the large number of variable factors implicated, such as climate, topography, access to forest / soil, vegetation, labor, technology and experience. Swidden cultivators normally have been staying nomads, and they put very few legible traces, except for major changes in the natural regrowth. Vegetation changes is often mistakenly interpreted as if they were unaffected by man.

The relationship between population and food production

A controversial topic has been staying the relationship between population and food production; return applying size in relation to population. Registered data from one culture are often not comparable with a different culture, and the collection of relevant data is also very complicated, often because the researcher does not know the foreign culture well enough. A common deficiency is that the period of regrowth have not been sufficiently taken into account.Overproduction was common and therefore an unpredictable factor. The units gained new importance in arable farming, but the words lived on. Now they were based on arable farmingparameters, an "ax" was like a "Lott", but how much work is it? How much rye is a "stakk"? "Haken " used to be the same as the swidden land, but in arable farming it came to be an area measure.

During the Middle Ages arable farming took over food production in the Nordic European countries. Field use has led to the quality of grain is being constantly deteriorating, while the quantity has increased. The number of "tunnland" pr.haken increased, but tunnland was not originally a unit area. In Estonia, the number of haken came to be much larger in 1500 than the years it had been staying at 1200's (1925 Johansen 2), for now the haken and tunnland came about to be area measure. The written sources from the 1300's arrange shifting cultivation and agriculture separately, "Acker ungerodet und gerodet / ungebuwet und gebuwet / ungeploget und geploget / agri inculti a culti” (Johansen 1925 80). In this transition period was no landarea standards and the variations were so confusing.

Human history

Human history is complex, but history can be traced if one starts with the relationship between landscape, flora, fauna and climate. By registering the human influence on the nature in the work to achieve the envisaged food production, one can also observe relationship between cultivation and social changes. Recordable natural climate changes and shifts have affected the cultivation, which also has an ethnological, social and technological dimensions. Its regularity can be understood by the study over a longer period under the continuous cultural and ecological changes (Conklin 1961 29).

By ranking local variations at different locations over time, one can detect systematic relationships between ecological components and their methodological dependence on each other. Otherwise find many other dependency that can last for the benefit of the research of shifting cultivation. Burning to clear new farmland or burning for grass production is not called shifting cultivation in this context. I have chosen to keep clearing burning out in this study, because the task would be another by involving this issue. But my choice should not be interpreted to denote that clearing of new land and grass production have not been staying relevant.

Study of swidden cultivation must necessarily mean that you go into the practical details and their relationship to each other. Language is also a good helper in this context. The speech is old and it has a logical and semantic build-up. Conformed stems often has a near etymological affinity. Therefore are some Finnish words in brackets after the corresponding Norwegian term, and here without any adjacent comment.

Swidden cultivation of food products are in shorthand form : first the choice of place and followed by logging , burning , seeding, harvesting and finally regrowth of the forest.

Natural influences that need to be considered can be divided into three groups: climate (Ilma) - ground (maa) - life (elo).

Man's contribution can also be divided into three groups: technology (kirves) - social order (kirjo) - experience (ruhnu).

The Clan

The head of swidden family group or clan (noite) had at all times to have an overview of his own clan's activities in order to put together these three parameters to a kind of "rubik-cube" , according to his own experience and conscious thought.

During the time frame covers the first three cues removal of the existing vegetation, which is controlled by man. The next three deal with the new vegetation, crops and regrowth of new forests.

The time between harvest and regrowth varies from direct transition to regrowth through a number of years with a second use of swidden (vuoma) to never regrowth, ie, direct transition from the crop (pühä) to a permanent farm place / settlement (Piha).

Natural influences noite need only register and take into account in its assessment; climate with rain, wind, temperature, drainage conditions, soil type, topography, flora and fauna, but he mastered his brought seeds for planting.

Noite coordinates so that all valves; technology with adequate treatment of the area at the right time, cutting, burning and social order with the clans functions. Runic poetry was a faithful helper in the exploitation of past experience and knowledge, and poems have thankfully ability to survive.

Swidden cultivation required a large number of people, for the group to survive as an operational unit, and it is a complex cycle of synchronized process performed by individuals and / or groups in binding necessarily coordinated cooperation .

Such production union is often called a clan, extended family , kind, thiod, ätt, or tribe, in Russian plemja, rod, in Persian tauma and Sanskrit jana, kula-. Village name in today's Finno-Ugric languages is küla, the word küllä is a reinforced yes, those that say yes and agree. Each man in swidden society had significance as a participant in the community, not as a person.

Individualism was an unknown phenomenon in this society

Individualism was an unknown phenomenon in this society. Complex cultivation cycle consists of a variety of carefully synchronized tasks, performed by individuals in an intimate partnership. This interaction should care so well established that the individual goes into the community. These sophisticated procedures are perceived badly by outsiders, and are in the older literature often characterized as religious rituals, without being given any practical significance. Only rarely have outsiders been able to understand the functional correlation. Swidden cultivation was dependent on that the various procedures were correctly and synchronously executed. Incorrect procedure was disastrous, and could not be accepted. So ruled a cult excluding, polytheistic religion. Religion was bars of knowledge about the world, a communication process where the knowledge is kept alive through constant use, and new knowledge is developed and displaces useless routines with new rituals. The code was ruled by the forest, air and water spiritual supernatural beings. Skogsråa / wood nymph, giants and dwarfs lived in the underworld (allima), and they were given three functions: to help those people who respect and appreciate the forest spirits, punishing those who break the rules in the forest, and to remind that in the forest you are not the boss, where you can not act arbitrarily. Similarly, the air (taevas) and water spirits, (jumal) was both helping and punishing.

Only when the iron was in common use as a metal, the plow was efficient, and arable farming came to take over most of the food production.

Christianity came to the north of Europe

At the same time Christianity came to the north of Europe, and the old rituals and rules were still kept alive, especially where swidden cultivation continued at the side of plowing agriculture. The new religion was adapted elite / leadership, and had to start with little impact on the farming community. The church tried enough to remedy this, by refining their saints and martyrs for the local franchise days and festivals. But the people continued to "consult" their old gods, for they protected both crops and livestock. The new religion was received as a positive contribution, and people often accept both baptism, the new holy days and church services, but the protective old gods were still working as a precaution. Runas rituals and festivals have survived the great paradigma change, as the introduction of monotheism represented. These relicts are a diverse and interesting study material today. Poems, memories, fairy tales, legends and songs about creatures and events are often in a large number of varieties and over large geographic areas. They can be very old, and contains elements of mythic structures. Christian celebrations are usually inserted in an older context, there Christian elements can be seen or is very clear. A being / event often have specific words / phrases as characteristic. Old myths can be reconstructed by cooperation between the subjects; ethnology, mythology, philology, linguistics, semiotics and others.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Kaisa Henriksson Vilhuinen (1855-1941) Mulltjärn, sibling in Värmlandhas meant a lot to Kalevala research. She is the biggest contributor to Sampo-cycle and a large number of other rune poems . Helmi has written on the back of this copy, Kaisa in his stuga, "until recently the temple." Photo: Helmi Helminen Nordberg 1930 SU 334:102 (a) Museiverket, Helsinki

== The priests and missionaries ==

The collection of runes in Karelia, Finland, Ingria, and Estonia from the end of 1700 onwards started a gradually heating debate about the Finnish religion. The priests and missionaries had collected historical material. They wanted to show that the Sami were good Christians, because after 30 years of war (1618-48), Sweden was accused of having used the Sami / Finnish witchcraft in the service.

Some claimed that the Finns worshiped one God and believed in the soul's salvation / damnation, while others argued that this could not be detected. Gottlund wrote in 1839 to his fellow student from Uppsala, Lars Levi Lästadius, that he had discussed this in Swedish Literature Tidning (1818), where he reviews Rühs, "Finnland och dess invånare" (Finland and its inhabitants), and that he had not changed his mind. "What Ganander, Petterson, Rühs and others have written about it is purely Galimathias.” The Finns have not in their language any words that denote: church, temple, pray, sacrifice, altar, priests, etc. Jumala (God) is not a nomen appellativum, but a proprium, and cannot be used as an added word constructed with, or together with, other nominations propria. You say Jumala-Isa, Jumala-poike (instead of Isä Jumala, Poike Jumala, etc. ), but it is not Finnish, and is against the nature of the language of Christianity. Just this should show you how the Finnish mythologies are to their reasons. Only the Finnish Runa (Song) may deserve to be read, though not as psalm, hymn, or belief. If the Finns in heathen were convinced of the soul’s eternal life, of punishment and prosperity in another world, no real conclusions can be drawn from it today. What one can find out indirectly through their philosophy, language, and old literature may be obtained in the writings of old Finnish philosophy. First transcribed in Ottawa and now published in German at Leipzig Bruckhaus, it was distributed at Sederholm in Moscow, which has since then provided an excerpt in 1835 on the 'Morgenblath' as Cotta published it in Augsburg "(Lästadius 1997 15).

Gottlund did not have much confidence in Ganander`s" Mythologia Fennica, "which was published in Turku 1789. Ganander takes it for granted that tale characters were gods, which he describes according to an old manuscript written by Lennart Sidenius.

It was the priests who described the Finnish mythology. They had a mission assignment and wrote from a Christian point of view and used the church's terminology. Only a few spoke Finnish or Sami. Gottlund is right that there are a lot of source materials waiting to be used: runas.

== Signs and symbols can tell ==

Signs and symbols can tell; the pentagram (viisikanta, viskant, viisnurk) was used to test the axman. With five blows he would make a symmetrical pentagram. I did not succeed. My cousin Johannes Säterbakken (1908 -1990) took me to a big spruce tree. "Here I have sat many times, thinking,” he said. "The first cut should be angled correctly." He took off his hat and demonstrated a cut in the tree-calf. "Cut the next four," he said, and gave me the ax. "This is a great star. The tip of it is pointing straight up at the top of the bush." I firmly believe that he succumbed to the tree before he put on his hat. We went back to the farm. When he put down his ax, he said, "She knows she shall be cut down come winter." That it had magical significance is not surprising. The pentagram with the tip up represents the world (maa - ilm) and with the tip down it simulates the underworld (maa - all). The Finns used it as protection for the cows, especially when they grazed in the forest. During the meal afterwards, Ellen said, half loudly: "Höss, - is it for the spruce by the sauna --- I wonder ---?" Johannes reassured that she should remain at peace. "The giant spruces standing until the old age itself lie them down. The rot ate them up from the inside and the wind had been working to tear them down. After they had eaten from the earth for a hundred years, they lied down and gave it all back. And the moss wove them fallen into the green, and Linnea decorated the graves with nodding bells on fine wire stems "(Holth 1982 223).

This "maa muna" (earth egg) is made of wood with swidden rye and a green sapphire stone inside. Photo: Erki Animägi.

Metsää tervehitään. Forest greeting.

Metsän ukko, metsän akka Forest guy, forest woman Metsän ukko, halli parta Forest guy, with a gray beard, Tules työsi tuntemaan. Come and get acquainted with the job, Vikasi parantamaan! Come to correct your mistakes.

Suomen Kansan Vanhat Runot, VII 4 SKS Helsinki, 1933. Raja - ja Pohjois - Karjalan Runot 2489. Suistamo, Loimola.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

John Johnsson Oinoinen, 1873 - 1964 Niittaho Jussi, studying the cross in the road to Juhoila, sibling. You have to jump over cross in the stone, for only then, one is welcomed back to the farm.

 

Photo: Helmi Virtaranta, 16/10/1960 SUK 570:120 Museiverket, Helsinki

 

There is still a long way to go before people faith and way of life at swidden finns are explored and understood.

Finnish mythology

Finnish mythology, the belief in supernatural forces, beings and effects, can primarily be traced for at the swidden manager ( noita ). He had the people's respect, and everyone accepted his assessment and obeyed his commands. The clans existence depended on his knowledge and correct decisions.

Missionary priests have often interpreted this loyalty that noitas witchcraft and possession of supernatural powers: this was effective because people believed blindly in noita. But many of the priests were not essential to understand what noitas power over the people actually consisted in. People's loyalty was due from the old days of noitas ability to lead cultivation. Could he not guide satisfactory, he was promptly deposed, exiled or killed. Priests sermon about the Christian religion with faith and promise of eternal life or suffering and destruction in the opposite case, was not enough for swidden culture. The Incarnation was a completely alien thought, as well as eternal life as something desirable.The numerous Finnish runes / poems says that he who molest other clans selections or swidden plots should not be allowed to go back to nature, but is ordered to wander around forever.

When dead occurred

When dead occurred, the Finn went into the wild. The burial site of the corpse was not that significant, but the dead body should be returned to nature. There are reports that one from the right of the old dead hung it up in a tree, so that in case of a recent site visit, to see that the reversal was complete. In the North - Karelia Elias Lönnrot noticed several groves of old trees where the figures were carved into the trunks. By Kandalax he noticed upside down facing human figures carved in trees (Lönnrot 2002 255).

This was the old cemeteries where the forest was left untouched, and the characters were visible remains of the ancient pre-Christian burial custom. In September 1833 he tells of "a fresh harvested swidden", where a cross was erected. The wizard said, "when the forest year before, was cutt down, dispensed one of the men was killed by a falling tree. As it was difficult to get the dead body from the place, they instead got the priest back there to bury him on the spot, now with this cross it was marked. Not without indignation I was thinking, how our community in one such case would have accted. If there had been in the most busy harvesting time, so one would have occupied the whole crew in the village, to get the deceased to the churchyard, than to bury him on the spot "(Lönnrot 2002 184).

The Estonian word for grave is, haud / haua. This word was likely brought to Estonia with the Vikings.

Historic References

Spaniard Paul Orosius wrote 417 AD, "& thar is mid Estum an mägth that hi magon cyle gewyrcan, & thy thär licgath tha deadan men sova langa & ne fuliath, thät hy wyrcath thone cyle hine on "- and there are a clan among the Estonians who knows how to make cold, and that is why the dead man there can be as long and do not rot, because they keep him cold (Orosius 417 18).

On a runic stone at Gripsholm is the ca.1040 AD carved into the memory after the Vikings, who died in österled: "De foer mandigt fjernt efter guld og österude gav de örnene föde De döde sydpå i Särkland” They traveled far after gold and eastwords gave the eagles feed they died in the south in Särkland" (North Arabia). A tragic rune is about a young man (lösfinne), who was deadly injured during swidden, far from home in the north a place among the Sami. He realizes that he will die soon, and that his dead body will then become food for ravens, and crows will also pick up his body, "Kaaun kankahan nenähän - Kuolen korppien kotihin - Variksien vainiolle" (Kaukonen 1984 II, 305).

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Grave "support" in Sarovaara, Karelia. The right in the drawing is an enlargement of the icon / image that is carved in trunk. The image is protected by a recessed roof boarding.

 

Drawing; Alaric Tavaststjerna 08/09/1901 (1929 Kekkonen 86)

In 1986 Sven R.Gjems interviewed the loggers Josef Einarsrud: "Yes, there was a guy named Olaf Kvernbakken who found this. In a thicket on Tvengsberg - forest he came across a rough "order bush", where someone had cut out a whole male figure in the wood. There was a rusty nail driven into the heart of the meter tall shape, and there was not much imagination to see what someone had been doing there in his time, maybe around the turn of the century. And what are you doing to stay so youthful? - I am grateful for the existence and take each day as a gift ! "(1991 Gjems 50).

After the hot charge of Northern Europe in the Middle Ages, it was from ca.1300 colder and more moisture. Nomadic swidden cultures therefore had to move more often. Some of them found it useful to cultivate rye (juureinen, korpiruis, metsäruis, mätäsruis, talviruis) and turnips in the spruce forest. It took four years from felling the forest in April (huhtikuussa) to harvesting of the rye (Soininen 1959, Heikinheimo 1915).

This swidden variety, huuhta, is developed in the savokarelian forests, provoked by the ergot plague and late medieval colder climates. Hunger forced them to experiment until huuhta technique developed . The fatal ergotism, antons fire, which devastated Central - and Northern Europe from the migration time and forward in the Middle Ages may have been staying on to create huuhta technique in the big woods. These forest swiddeners were less susceptible to ergot than other field users. But it is more about this in the discussion of rye.

It is otherwise clear that the Finns can not have learned huuhta of the Slavs, and nothing suggests that they may have acquired it from anyone else either. Slavs (Sclaveni, Antes and Venethi) has a different history, which can be traced back to the Byzantine sources of ca.600 AD (Jordanes, Procopius, and Theophylact). Bulgar kingdom was founded 681AD, and it contributed to the Christianization of the Slavic world in the next two three centuries. Agriculture had previously developed here among the Slavs in the fertile soil of rivers and lakes.Scandinavians (Varjager / Vitiazi) and Finns were heavily involved in the creation of the Kiev State in 882 AD. The old swidden noitas became the ruling class with former axmen as tenant farmers, and slaves (stradnik) if they did not behave nicely (Kljuchevsky 1960 186).

But after the year 1110 AD Kiev rus began to lose their power, and the Nestor chronicle ends here. The leadership was such moved to Rostov on the upper Volga, and in 1124 AD was this Boyar - national center and army center again moved to Yaroslavl (Zaliesskaia Oblast, zaliess = beyond the forest) in Opolye (Polsky = on arable land). Until Prince Mstislav's death in the year 1132 AD Kiev managed to withstand the Polovtsi. In the year 1103 the following was referred to the population's fate: "In spring, the farmer took the horse to plow, when a plovtsin attacked him, and after having stabbed the farmer with his sword, he went to the farmer's farm, and killed his wife and children, looted, and set fire to the houses "(1960 Kljuchevsky 192).

"Steppes barbarians" also hindered trade routes through Kiev. Kiev`s royal recruited others; Vladimir's eldest son, Boris, ruled in Rostov, while the next son, Gleb, ruled Murom. The move north was caused not only the fear of the Turks, Tartars, Lechsene and other aggressive peoples (Polovtsi / Kumani), but also new nourishment in the north. The Finnish tribes who lived here had left a lot of swidden plots after, and these were now used by the incoming field users. New plots in the good soil of the river Oka, Ugra and the Volga and the sea came in addition to the annual swidden . The old communities with their centers, Kostroma, Murom, Yaroslavl, Vladimir, etc., was soon on its feet, and at the Mongol attacks it is said that the Moscow, Tver and other cities had both monasteries and royal seats. The Slavic population increased by land cultivation as steadily as the Finnish swiddeners in the woods, but in different ways and at different times. Field cultivation and swidden respond differently to climate variations and other influences. The Finns and Slavs could therefore live in constant fruitful interaction with each other. Finnish people, like finns, estonians, veps, muromani and merya had long lived in the forests here in Northeast Russia, when the field useing rusians came from the south. Muromani held to the lower Oka, mery around Periaslavl and Murom, wasps in Bieloe Ozero (Kljuchevsky 1960 204).

The forest importance is also reflected in the rusiske language, but not with the same subtleties as in the Finnish (1983 French 15).

The so called "kultusekivi" by Karinu, Järva-Jaani, Estonia. This move block is one of the many grinding stones for acheulane axes. These are also known as saucer pit stones, after the bowl-shaped indentations that grinding has left. It may well care that such stones also had a cultic functions. Several of them are on the later central gathering places. Photo: Erki Animägi

Huuhta cultivation spread, within the circle in 1500 AD entire line in 1600 AD dashed in 1700 AD It appears that huuhta originated in the forests northeast of Viborg even the 1300's, but the prevalence accelerated only later. The expansion continued in the 1800s and to Twer in Russia, Delaware in North America and several areas in Siberia. During the rigorous climate deterioration in the so-called "little ice age" 1300 -1850 AD the savokarelian swidden cultivation expanded in all directions, the strongest in the period 1550 - 1700 AD The large virgin pine forest areas in the north was a niche in the possible nourishment.

This expansion of swidden cultivation in Savolax and Karelia went to Sweden, northern Finland, Twer, Ingria and Estonia. Spruce was not valued as timber such as pine. It is described as useless, and the authorities in Sweden wanted spruce consumers welcome. Society would have new tax citizens, so the newcomers were stimulated with offers of tax exemption in the beginning. The governmental inducements were not the cause of an expansion, but it had a positive effect. After the war in the years 1555 to 1557 between the Swedish and Russian troops, the Russians complained that the Finns withdrew eastward and took the land in use, and this continued until the peace of Stolbova 1617. But it stopped probably not here, also the political conditions encouraged the Finns to continue moving. In the years 1637 to 1642 many emigrated swiddeners from Karelia eastward to the governorates Twer (Kalinin) aided by the Russian Orthodox Church and the nobility, who wants new tax payers. In the spruce forests of Valdai Highlands, Tikhvin and Novgorod were also Finnish swiddeners. This is well documented in the archives of Twer.

 

The Finnish immigrants to Scandinavia in 15 - 1600's was of the last swiddeners in Europe

 

The Finnish immigrants to Scandinavia in 15 - 1600's was of the last swiddeners in Europe. In Scandinavia, they soon came into contact with the field usage culture among villagers, and a mutual cooperation was initiated. Because the forest Finns were specialists in huuhta swidden cultivation, they applied themselves to the best spruce forest areas, but these were often also used by the farmers sommerfields. In this period of klimate deterioration farmers were forced to an increasing utilization of their farms. At the same time accelerated expansion of swiddeners. The number and size of the swidden may be increased to achieve the same crop as before. This led to an intense use of forests, but the Finns left behind to the farmer what he would prefer to have; walled (olla pühässä) gras growing annual swidden plots (niittu aho).

This collaboration often led to the finnish settlement on the farmers sommer place, and forest Finns had often livestock from the village board in the summer. It is also mentioned that the Finns supplied butter both to the village and on to the city. Eventually it was not uncommon for the farmer called the Finn with his swiddeners, to make swidden in the forest next to the village.

 

Niittahon Jussin sauna in North Viggen, Nyskoga. It was built in year 1918 by Per Andersson, Nullan Pekka, from Hyttjanstorpet, Grue Finnskog and used for the production of liquor during the prohibition era in Norway. Photo; Helmi Virtaranta 31/08/1954 SUK 528:99 Museiverket, Helsinki.

Shifting cultivation was so complicated, that it was not so easy to copy it for a field user in the valley village. Nevertheless, some guys from the valley farms were incorporated into the swidden group, and the Finns were often working on farms in the village. And this colaboration increased when the timber cutting expanded in the 1800 's. The swiddeners working group consisted of many axmen under a leader. Tomas Häkkinen should have had 50 men on his swidden group. No wonder that the government looked with suspicion on the newcomers.

Erik Sparre said in 1651 in a complaint written to Queen Christina, ” --- att störste delen af finnarna olofligen och före deras bedrefne Bofwastycken rymt från Finland och, efter det några på skogarna i Gästrikland och Helsingland förskaffat sig öferhetens bref på sina upptagna torpställen, hafva de hemligen till sig dragit en hop med lösa finnar, kanske däribland en hop med förrymda, lagskrifna knektar utan pass och besked"--- that most of the Finns have flied from Finnland because of their bad behavior and criminal doing and, according to that some in the forests of Gästrikland and Helsingjaland have got the ownership on their cleared land, have they allowed themselves secretly to apply a cluster of not recorded Finns, perhaps among them a group of discarded, criminal knights without a passport and message" (Nordmann 1888 3).

In 1665 the bailiff of Solör is writing, ”Skogfinnene hugger likesaavel di bedste som di udygtige Träer til deres Roug og Roesäd: overfarer saa det ganske Land, rotter seg sammed til 20, 30 og mere, saa de ere nu formidabel for Almuen”. Forest Finns are cutting as well the best trees as the bad once for their rye and thurnip cultivation: going ower the whole land, rats themselves together 20 and 30 and more, so they are overwhelming the community" (Stat. Ekstraktp. bd.II, s.38, sak58).

Eilert Sundt who visited the Finnforest, writes, "Til Forskjel fra nordenfjeldske Finner eller Lapperne kaldte äldre Skribenter disse agerdyrkende Nybyggere gjerne ”Skovfinner” eller ”Rugfinner”, og når de omtalte dem, skede det for det meste med megen Ugunst. In a ´Relation about Norges Riges Status in the year 1699´(Budstikken , 4de Aargang 1823 358) it is said about them: ”De ere det allerskadeligste Ukrud for landet, som nogentid nävnes kan- -; have de på mange mile oppbrändt de skjönneste og bedste skove til deres rug- og nepebråder, betjenterne til en ringe profit, men Kongen, landet og innbyggerne til aller störste skade, thi i Ufreds Tider ere de ikke alene de allerstörste Espioner, men og, som de vide alle Gjenveie og Stier i Skovene, saa maa hver fattig Mand frygte sig for deres Overfald, Röven og Tyveri” (Sundt 1850 192).

To the difference from the northern Finns or Lapps old writers interpreted these fieldcultivating Settlers as " Forestfinns "or" Ryefinns ", and when they referred to them, half of the unsolicited mostly with much disfavour. In a 'Relation of Norway's Riges State in the year 1699' it is said about them: "They are the most harmful beasts for the country, which ever name is -, they have of many mile burnt the finest and best forests for their rye - and thurnip cultivation, officer holders to make profit, but the King, country and the citizens of the greatest damage, though in war times they are not only the best Espion, but also, as they know all the Re-Weighing and trails in the forests , then every poor Mand must be afraid of their Plundering, Robbery and Theft.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Stone ax (l.14, br.7, t.4cm.) Shaft hole is not complete, so it was Lindtorp's ink bottle. Photo: Per Martin Tvengsberg The boundaries between the community's forests seats went hill to hill for sight line while the Finns used the rivers and lakes that distinguished their potential forest to use. This different division created problems when timber logging came to be common. To facilitate the procedure by which disputes arose, it was in Norway from year 1719 required to draw a map of the argued area.

Tacitus 98 AD wrote:

Dairy or summer mountain agricultural origin can, in my opinion be sought in much older times of shifting cultivation. Grass growth on the abandoned swidden plots gave pasturage and hay production for many years after swidden. Such abandoned swidden was pasture for livestock, and they became the basis for dairying. Tacitus gives information about the grass beds that were not fenced (Tacitus 98 AD July 26).

Germans who needed hay for the cattle in winter, had to keep the cattle far away from the swidden quarters in the woods in summer, at the older abandoned swidden plots in the distant forest, ie mountain pastures / chairs. People who did not keep their swidden fenced, developed in this way seats that was used as summer pastures for cattle, while those tribes who kept the swidden fenced, was not going to focus on mountain farm operations. Where growing conditions varied strongly, north and height of the mountains, it was necessary to fence in swidden, but in the Mediterranean this was not necessary. Grass growth was big enough for both wild and domesticated animals. In Norway, the summer seats for cettle was normal before the Middle Ages, and the Vikings took the custom with them to Iceland. In Finland, the seats were not holding any significant extent. There were relatively large distances between the various clans. Summer mountain dairying is mentioned in medieval landscape laws in Scandinavia. In the Norwegian mountain areas it still exists, but in the rural lowland it quit a couple of generations ago, as in Østfold (Iversen 1927 27).

Down in Europe it can be traced, as in the Danish place names - löse (1922 Aakjär 16).

For forest Finns were never appropriate in this summer dairying. The large number of abandoned swiddens was always fenced, as long as haymaking lasted. This was usually sufficient winter fodder. Hay from swidden far away was utilized only in hard times. These were usually left to the grazing animals and left for the forest's own fauna. Shifting cultivation has , as I said, became the most common culture method historically (Clark 1945 57-71 , Steenberg 1955 65).

This cultural form requires a large family structure , and thus some form of village. Archaeology has demonstrated a difference in settlement development in Denmark and other Nordic countries - West European lowlands (Gröngaard Jeppesen 1981 135).

 

"Walking village"

This difference is clearly visible around 8-900 AD, and depends probably on the transition to field cultivation, which came later in Denmark than further south. Generally speaking, arable farming has expanded northwards in Europe from the Mediterranean to find forest within the last two thousand years before the 1600's AD. Climate fluctuation has a different impact on field cultivation than on shifting cultivation. Shifting cultivation is expanding at climate deterioration, and the so-called "walking village" is activated, while arable farming has little chance of immediate territorial expansion that is detectable archaeological. Vikings had a climate deterioration that led to expansion both internally and migration to unused forests both in outskirts and in other European areas where arable farming had already taken over the food production, so that the wood was available for migrating swiddeners.

 

Large families or clans wandering in the lush woodlands

Large families or clans wandering in the lush woodlands has been staying the most common form of life down through human history. Axes to fell trees and sickles for harvesting of the grain were the only tools people might bring with them. All other devices were made from materials they found at the site, such as fire stake of burch, long rod (vanko) and harrow made of a spruce top. The extended family conquered the lush virgin forest, burned and cultivated their carefully selected swidden plots, powered one or a few crops, and then proceeded on to new forests which they had registered before. In the temperate zone the forest regenerated in the course of a lifetime. So swidden was repeated several times in the same area over the years. But in the tropics the forest floor gradually depleted. It was not only to the moors, as in Northern Europe, but also in the steppe, savannah, prairie, pampas and barren desert in tropical areas where shifting cultivation is the oldest (Clark 1952 91-107).

Man has always consumed forest, but greed has never lasted as threatening as now in our mechanized modern "welfare state". Some have enough at all times been staying occasionally tempted to produce more food than they needed. However, overproduction had no supporters as long as off-take did not exist. History shows, however, that enforced or voluntary swidden for those in power or good payers is old business. There is no reason to romanticize ancient times. Today's technical capabilities were not at that time. But it seems that Europe and later the Europeans over the world, is in an unfavorable historical position for his aggressive fashion with the other parts of the world from the Middle Ages onward.

It is found remarkably little remains of our ancestors, so the knowledge about people is very sparse. Hominids are defined as all creatures, living and dead, who is nearer akin to us people currently living than to someone living chimp. Before homo - erectus hominids had ape-like traits. Homo erectus was probably the first creatures who was not afraid of fire, and who was intelligent enough to take fire in his service. They had discovered the benefits of growing food crops in the ashes of forest fires, and therefore they acquired themselves to found a fire. So they were some mighty creatures evolved to lead ahead of animals.

Manipulation of fire, followed by use of an ax

Manipulation of fire, followed by use of an ax to fell the forest, developing to be the prehistoric land consumption. These crown creatures were thus also the first who made tools by making use of other tools for this purpose. They must have seemed daunting powerful at any other hominid. They were also the first who left camps behind / settlements which archaeologists have been able to decipher. Homo erectus was the driving force and intelligence enough to spread over large parts of the world. Their antecedents are found in Africa. Swidden culture was an important intelligence developer. Thus increased ability and willingness to socialize, because the crop was greater with effective collaboration . Use of the tool has played an important role in human development. The great need for axes of the best possible quality, led to a general always recurring activity; to find new and better materials and intensify and refine the production of this substantial consumer goods and so furthermore commercial product. Stone has been staying the most common raw material, therefore, flint mines and usable stone deposits have been staying vital. Archaeological research calls this stone industry Acheulan after the site Saint Acheul in northern France, where stone axes was found.

The Royal Academy in London in 1797 would not accept that these stone axes could be spesialy old, but in 1872 they were described as L'Epoque de St.Acheul, and fifty years later, this name was confirmed. The large geographical spread and the immense time span from early prehistory to near modern times, make sure that this name is narrow and imprecise. The acheulan axes represents a way of makeing stone tools, and have a common cultural purpose; swidden cultivation.

The oldest find of a stone ax comes from Vestturkana in Kenya and is near to two million years old. Axes were carved, sanded and polished, in different ways depending on the kind of stone they were made of. Axes were polished on a harder kind of stone, often a large boulder or bedrock. Several such production sites are found, here is mentioned a few; Olorgesailie in Kenya, Isimila in Tanzania, Kalambo Falls in Zambia and Melka Kunturé in Ethiopia. Common used stone was: basalt, granite, obsidian, rhyolite, and other metamorphic locally available. In Africa basalt has been usual, and flint was the most used stone in Western Europe. Even so soft stone as sopestone has been used. Langdale Pikes in northwest England is a famous mountain area offering good ax stone, and many other stone ax producing places might as well have been mentioned here. Professional craftsmen have developed sophisticated production methods, and the distribution of axes led to an extensive trade. Axes have always been staying for granted. In the early Bronze Age, most of the copper and bronze was used for production of axes, but the stone axes were still used in most areas. Later, metal versions of many kinds were tested, until the iron took over as the main material for the axes, plows and other implements.

An old Estonian folklore legend

An old Estonian folklore legend tells us: " On the shore of a lake a poor man once choped a major logg of alder tree. Suddenly the ax jumped of the shaft and sank in the water. The man searched for it on the bottom of the sea with a long branch, and at last he thought, that he touched vid it. He undressed, jumped into the water and searched on the spot, where he ment he felt the ax, but he could not find it. He dived several times and searched and explored on the bottom – but no. Very sad he went back on the beach and dressed, while he with tears in his ayes observed the lake, where he lost his property. When he was ready, he directed his steps home to get another ax. His husband was surely very rich, but a real miser and also very angry. He sade now: - If you have throwen the ax in the lake, then you can cut the logs with your hands or how you want it, but a stable of wood shall be put up before evening. Or you get not an old one's interest Grosch of your wages! The man returns to the beach, continuing searching, diving more times but - no. What shall I do? He mourned and sat down on the ground. Now I have no ax and I get no pay! My wife and the children have no food tomorrow, poor them! Hardly has he said this, he hear that the sea starting bubbeling and foaming and he sees an old man with large gray beard coming svimming at the beach. The man is afraid but the old man raising from the wather and asks: - Why you are so sorry? The woodcutter tells his grief league history and complains about his bad chance but the old man answered, - This I know. But you wait! I shell seartch for your ax. He disappeared under wather but come upp with a copperax in his hand, show it to the man and ask: - Is this your ax? - No, answered the man. The water old man diving an other time, and now he is bringing upp a silverax, show it to the woodcutter and ask: - It is this then? - no, the man answered. The third time the gray old is diving and comes up bringing a goldenax. He asks: - Than it must be this one? - no, the man answered. Again the water old is diving and now he comes upp with the mans real ax. The man reaches for it with great thankfulnes. And the water old man give to him also the other three axes, that of gold, silver and that of copper. So the man does his work for the day and in the evening he tells about his fortune to his greedy husband. The miser is thinking: - you only wait! You did not understand to take the precious things, which one would give to you, one had to force them on to you! - Pursue I shell handel my case better! He put three axes on shafts very badly, go to the lake and cutting some trees. The ax is jumping of the shaft fare into the sea. Likewaise he is handeling with the second and and third. So he goes up and down on the beach, wailing and regretting loudly, untill the water old man occurs and asks for excuse for his grief. And so the old man is diving, coming upp loaded with three goldaxes and asks: Are these your axes? Yes, they are mine! The answer coming very quickly, and the greedy man stretsching out the hand to receive the axes. But sunnenly the water is boiling up and foam is flying him in the ayes. At the same time the water old man disappear and the water is suddenly quiet. Not a single wawe is mooving. The man sitting a good long time on the beach nearly toxicated of panic. Not a sound - nothing to view! Ashamed and sorry that he lost his three axes he at last went home. During his whole life he never more set his foot on the beach "(1945 Grängberg 46).

The legend is probably so old that it was told before the ironaxes came into use. Stoneaxes has become the stock in many different ways. It was a recurring problem to get them to sit on the shaft. Therefore, many different methods adapted to the different kind of stone and wood. However, this interesting subject must remain here.

 

As the first nearly complete hominid skeleton was found in the 1980s, the importance as a forerunner of the modern human being was strengthened. The discovery was made at Lake Turkana in Kenya (Walker 1996). Hominid material that is found, is quite sparse and random. This has provided the opportunity for many different theories about human origins, but we let this lie. Hypothesis, "out of Africa", is all about, that man is direct descendant of the upright hominid, which spread from Africa across the world for 100,000 years ago. About 12,000 years ago people came from Africa to the Levant. This time period is called the Neolithic (New Stone Age), for they had boat-shaped stoneaxes, produced by advanced technology (Tattersall 2002).

Other scientists believe that Homo sapiens came to Europe from Asia or from Africa to other continents. All theories are good, but few indications. But if we move north, it can be confirmed that Northern Europe was depopulated during the last glaciation, and that people come back here approx. 10,000 years ago. A common feature of almost all the archaeological investigations of hominids of this period, there are stone tools in the excavations, and that einkorn, millet, spelled and wheat has been staying grown. In northern Europe there seems not to have been staying stationary permanently settled society.

In Tanzania, East Africa in the Great Rift Valley, Olduvai Gorge, 60 km. outside of Nairobi, there have been found stone tools made of hominids from more than two million years ago until for 15.000 years ago. Here in this volcanic area, it is a tall 48 km. long gorge, which reveals the historical layering. In this eroded steep ravine the German scientist Wilhelm Kattwinkel nearly lost his life in 1911, when he discovered the many cultural layers. In 1931 started the Mary and Louis Leakey's research and Richard L.Hay arrived in 1961. Here it has been production of axes. Some of the stone (quartz, basalt and obsidian), which the axes are made of, are not found on the place. This material is taken from the mountains (Ol Esakut and Olorgesailie), which is ten kilometers away. It has been found some areas where the axes were made and other sites where used axes were honed. This axfactory is now a monument under the Olduvai Gorge Museum. In one million years, people have flocked here to get new axes and to polish the old still usable. Olduvai has given name to the theory that the industrial civilization has a lifetime of 100 years (1930-2030). Settlements have always pulsed, with periods of use between barren intervals.When the forest in reasonable distance was used up, the clan moved to new forest to burn. But when the new forest generation had grown back, people cound come and burn once more.

At Tsodilo Hills in Botswana archeologist Sheila Coulson of the Institute of Archaeology, Conservation and Historical Studies at the University of Oslo conducted a survey in summer 2006 together with the Universities of Tromsø and Botswana, Gaborone. This is the only hill for several hundred miles. They are on the UNESCO `s protection list with its 1500 years old cave paintings. In a small cave on the north of the Tsodilo Hills is a large stone block. It is six feet long and two meters high and covered by a number of indentations. This resembles the skin of a python. The three to four hundred indentations get the stone to look like a snake in the incident light in the cave. During the excavation, archaeologists found 13,000 artifacts, stone fragments, tools that were used to make indentations. These tools were more than 70,000 years old. Agglomerates that the objects were made of are not to be found in Tsodilo. Stone Age people had to pick them up to several hundred kilometers away. No traces of settlement were found at this location, but it must have been staying well known and used by organized intelligent people in nearly 100,000 years. Sheila's speculations about the ritual actions, which must have taken place here on this holy site is of interest and leads probably correctly. But her presentation contradicts in no way a practical explanation, it is likely that the python was the necessary grindstone, to obtain the shapening of axes and other stone tools. The many findings at the workshop is waste and fragments, which never got further than the rubbish dump at the production site. (Apollo 4 , 2006).

These stone tools are found throughout Africa, West Asia and Central Asia and elsewhere. Our ancestors have moved to a larger extent than previously believed. Acheulan axes existed in the Middle East a million years ago, but in Europe they seem to be about half as old. Later the modern swidden cultivation man began to conquer Europe. This occurred during cold periods, which required extensive forest areas in use in order to achieve the same amount of food as before climate deterioration. People came from the southeast, and they expanded so rapidly the food supply demanded. The so-called saucer pits in removable blocks and on the bare rock, is the memorial for these swidden culture. These are pits where polishing of axes took place. Neanderthal had to shy away from homo sapiens , who visited the lush European forests, where they were superior to the users by means of polished stoneaxes and fire. But both had stoneaxes, so some more knowledge about the Neanderthal disappearance 28,000 years ago, may be to trace the future invesigation of swidden culture.

Human development

We know little about human development, but many species have died out. In 1997 there was a discovery in Ethiopia 230 km. northeast of Addis Ababa. The fossils of hominids that were found could be dated quite accurately to last between 160 and 154 thousand years old, and the site was nearly cowered with stone tools. Our ancestors achieved at this stage in our present status, as primitive people. Scientists have different opinions, but that man, homo sapiens , originated in Africa and came to Europe 35 .000 to 70,000 years ago, it's pretty much agreed . The time difference play no role in our context. In relation to the history of hominids let's say five million years, this is a short episode. The long line illustrates hominids era (5 mill.years), while the short is homo sapiens (50,000 years).

 

 

 

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In The Blomboscaves Southern Cape in South Africa the archaeologist Christopher Henshilwood a few years ago found 70,000 years old traces of a habitation. Later, other archaeologists presented similar African findings. One of them ought to be mentioned, however, the 17th of December 1992 found the Japanese anthropologist Gen Suwa found what resulted in the fossils of the 17 small, ca. one meter tall creatures in the Ethiopian desert not far from Adis Ababa. He discovered a set of teeth sticking out of the volcanic gravel. The following year, pieces of skulls, a jaw, elbows and arms were found. This showed that it can not be a pygmeape, but more a human being in question, and it lived six million years ago. The enamel on the teeth suggests that the diet has been staying vegetable and crops were sufficient on the then wooded plains.

In March 1994, was discovered human-like bones in some caves in Asturias, Spain (National Geographic, October 2008 38-59).

It turns out that this was the Neanderthals who lived 34,000 years ago. For 45,000 to 30,000 years ago humans spread from Africa through the Middle East westward to Europe. This was a period of climate deterioration and Neanderthalswere decimated, and some of them forced south to the Mediterranean. Maybe they had a different life than the newcomers. Swiddeners from Africa expanded in the same period, and they have been staying in the same areas. They have probably exploited different niches in the resources, and Neanderthal way of life must have failed. Bone remains in Asturia caves show that they were crushed and scraped. This may have been staying kanibalisme.

Swidden cultivators took more forests in use, in order to grow sufficiently food and expanded so quickly. Neanderthal social unit may have been staying small in relation to the major swiddeners, which grew faster than before, and promoted its cultural innovations. Human expansion has been staying practical and peaceful. There is no reason to suggest violent extermination of Neanderthal. In the same caves were found red-painted hand prints from people. Pigment analyzes have dated them to be between 20,300 and 19,500 years old.

Scandinavian research has concentrated on studying the field of agriculture history of the plow and its historical development as a central theme . The first major international congress on the plow was held in Copenhagen in 1954. An international secretariat for the study of plowing implements was established, the International Secretariat for Research on the History of Agricultural Implements. Sigurd Erixon was president. In 1968 the journal "Tools and tillage" started in Copenhagen by Axel Steensberg and Alexander Fenton, and the theme's title was changed to, Agrarian and Food Technology. Already in 1943 Steensberg had including tree felling experiments with stone ax in his doctoral thesis, and in the 1950's he had worked in similar experiments together with Johs.Iversen, Kustaa Vilkuna and J.Troels Smith in the Draved - experiments. All this led to the establishment of the Historical Archaeological Research Center in Lejre in 1964 with Hans Ole Hansen as chairman. They discovered here that plowing implements history was not consistent with agricultural history. In Draved it was proven by experiments, that it is possible to fell trees with a stone ax, just taking the time to learn the technique. This killing of trees was not so time consuming as many had previously thought. Polished smooth polished axes works much better than those with uneven surface (Clark 1945 68). They work like beavers teeth, and also have the same form.

Turnip and rye

 

Napus or beets are a lot older crops in the Nordic countries than rye, and turnip (lanttu) is a modern mutation (Ahokas 2004).

The people of Ultima Thule have grown root vegetables (napus) writes Pytheas ca.330 BC When Tacitus describes "agrestia poma" (field fruits) at the Germans, it is napus (Tacitus 23), and this also applies to "fruges" that must be stored in underground caverns to avoid freezing (Tacitus 16).

Many of the napus variants are found as weeds up in northern Scandinavia, and they are old, hardy and good food crops.They were common when the rye came into use, and they were often planted togeher with rye (Hyltén-Cavallius 1942 102-108).

Rye did not grow wild like weeds in the Nordic countries. It probabely came to North East Europe as impurities in emmerwheat (farro) and partly in einkorn and outs, and are processed and domesticated through the years here in the north (Ahokas 2009 19).

Emmerwheat seeds has the ability to drill down into the soil by means of the difference between day - and night - temperature and humidity. It is doing well even when it is sown on swidden plots. The colder climate in the north led to a refinement of the grain. The best and biggest seeds took care of the plantfamily's further processing. From 3400 BC onwards there is a marked increase in the cultivation of emmerwheat, and with this was also the rye gradually refined and domesticated. Rye and emmerwheat have many similarities, but rye has longer straws.

The rye had priority as food producer in several places at different times. Rie dried rye that has been treated in the way that it was shaked and beaten out of the grain bundles, through the ages have been preferred as sowing seeds. This attentive selection of the best seeds, and reconnaissance traveling young men exchange of three seed, each time they met, led to the effective development and spread of rye. Export of rye seed that has therefore been staying very important. Juureinen rye in large quantities was exported from Viborg / Huhtala the 1300's (Ahokas 2009 54).

There are a number of variations and many names; busk rug / rot rug / vinter rug, bush rye / root rye / winter rye.

Rålamb 1690 describes the quality of finnish rye (Ahokas 2009 56): "But what the same conserns / one must be avare of good rye / of which no better can be than that which we get from Finland / that is fare better / than we can get through our own drying riihi. The reason is that we put the rye up in stack on the field / there it is standing for a long time / until it is taken into the drying riihi / but the finnish custom is to bring it as soon as possible after it is cutt / into the drying riihi or storage; From a bad custom nothing useful is coming / so then our riihi rye are fair better than our storage rye / although it is not coming up to the Finnish quality".

Ryesod in the herb garden at Domkirkeodden Hamar, autumn 1988. The continued growth in the autumn after the picture was taken, and stood even in warm periods during the winter and grew a little. Note the box of matches in the bottom left. Photo; PMT

Ryesod in the herb garden at Domkirkeodden Hamar, autumn 1988. Growth continued in the warm periods during the winter. Note the box of matches in the bottom left. Photo: Per Martin Tvengsberg In the Finnforest it was common to sow rye and beet together. Beets were harvested the same year, thus there is room enough for ryesods to continued growth next summer. Beets (nauris) were stored in a frost free hollow in the ground and later in the underground cellar. But when the new American growth, the potato came in the second half of the 1700, this took over the peace and also much of ryes role.

Rye , secale, originating from western Asia's natural flora, like several other grains. The relationship between wild and old culture of rye species, origin and distribution pattern is partially identified by genetic, ecological, archaeological and geographical growth methods (Zohary 1971 253-258).

Cultivation of rye are much younger than wheat and barley. Rye has a great variety of close related species; weed species, half cultivated and domesticated species. The relationship between these and wild weed species are assessed. Culture - rye evolved in mountain Altai / Anatolia and in the Nordic countries, where other cereals do not fared so well (Ahokas 2009 9).

The mummified Tollund Man, found in a marsh west of Silkeborg in Denmark in 1950, had a belly full of such ergot infected rye, and he died ca. 400 BC During excavations at Soontagana stronghold, Pärnumaa in Estonia there was found charred rye older than ca.1220 (Lepajõe 1974). This is apparently perennual winter rye with small grains on the long straws. In 1875 the so called "rye-count" on Sangaste in South Estonia's started his attempts. He developed gradually, with crossing, a spesial rye that gave good crop on its own landscaped swidden on marshland. Sangasterye is mainly probsteirye x forestrye and was dominant in Estonia until approx. 1960. This rye tolerate winter cold well and had to have a cold period during winter. But a few degrees of frost in the spring could crack the germination ability altogether. Winter safety occurs in the fall when growth is slow and rye are transitioning from active growth to the resting period. Plants in idle have no growth and no photosynthesis. In this inactive resting period still a physiological and biochemical complex process is going on, which is absolutely necessary for the second growing season of the rye to be good.

Rye has a number of other characteristics than the other older grains. It can tolerate and need colder climate than other grains, and it was therefore growing higher up in the mountains and further north. Rye is kross pollinating in contrast to wheat and barley, that's nearly self pollinating, as are oats. Rye is not necessarily interfertile among wild, weed and cultivated varieties.Today's rye consists of two types: one-year cultivated rye (Secale cereals) and the two-year wild (Secale montanum). The one-year interfertile cereals varieties are cultivated plants, while two-year montanum sort are common weeds in old growth areas (Korsmo 1925 2).

These two rye types is not only ecologically different, they also show a structure of barriers to reproduction. Cereal and montanum have not identical chromosomes. F1 hybrids have a chain of six chromosomes in meiosis, ie, that some genetic sterility is present for hybrid varieties of cereals x montanum hybrids. Despite the difference, the cereal and montanum have a close morphological similarity. F1 hybrids are still semifertile and have normal chromosomes in meiosis. Nevertheless, cereals and montanum species still linked in nature due to extensive hybridization (Zohary 1971 254).

All montanum species are biennial and interfertile and have the same chromosomes and brittle, fragile ears. They are most common in Armenia and Anatolia, forming massive habitat on uncultivated land. Secale montanum make up much of the vegetation on the steppe and steppe-like formations and colonize field edges and roadsides. Wild rye - and weed species are ancestors of cultivated rye (Vavilov 1917 561-590), and weed rye is the direct source of cultural rye. Rye is a young crops (Helback 1971 265), which appears relatively late in the archaeological material. The one-year cultural rye, Secale cereals, is perhaps derived from the two-year Secale montanum? (Khush and Stibbins 1961 730).

The fact that all species of wild cereals are either weeds in the field or occur close to arable land, would suggest that they are relatively young species. They probably evolved after the east Asian agriculture had already been started. If this is correct, weed species of rye have spread northward with the cultivation of wheat and barley in Neolithic times. The spread began when the Armenian - Anatolian highland was colonized.Secale montanum has a dominant position there, but it does not exist in the Nordic countries.

 

Shaded field marks the high concentration of huuhta - names such as. Huhtamäki. Dotted field indicates large number of vuoma - names such as. Kattuvuoma. In marginal areas of cultivation are such svedje-name terms forming. It is rare enough not to be confused with the nearest similar name.

 

Rügen development

If the wild precursors of Secale cereale (one year rye) is Secale montanum (two year rye / winter rye), it is a question why the genetic difference between various species of winter rye and the human-influenced culture species is larger than that of the other much older domesticated grains. Why has the estimated Secale montanum forerunners greater variation in chromosomes than Secale cereale, two translocations, and why are cereale x montanum F1 hybrids semi - sterile? In wheat, barley and oats on the other hand, each pair of wild and culture - as species with respect to chromosomes and fully inter-fertile. Pollination system in rye and the divisive relationship between cereale and montanum also requires an explanation. The probable precursors of weeds - and culture – cereale complex is the two-year Secale montanum. The site for the development of cerealecomplex can be the central area for Secale montanum; Armenia and Anatolia (Zohary 1971 257).

However, a similar trend has probably happened to wild rye, who has been following other cereals as contamination in other cereals expanding into northern Europe. The wild and primitive species should be examined more careful. Chromosome pairs and their recombination process between wild rye and culture rye is spesially interesting. Fertilization biology is more complex than previously thought, but this can be studied, if not already done so. The wild and primitive species and swidden rye have better qualitative grain protein than current culture rye (Kranz 1973).

They have a larger proportion of soluble fiber and contains less gluten. Swidden rye have a greater variety of flavors, and it has a medicinal effect, such as strengthening of the immune system and slowing down allergies, confer to Oralmat.The Finns assume that it also has a positive effect against prostate cancer. It appears that the rye was domesticated in several places independently and at different times. Development of culture rye has occurred in the colder climate in northern Europe, and similar processes have taken place in mountainous areas in the South - Eastern Europe, Northern Caucasus and Central - Asia (Khush 1963 60-71).

Oldest rye pollen in Finland is dated 2170 BC (Ahokas 2009 20). Rye are found in archaeological emmerhweat from before 500 AD. Emmerhweat is similar to rye with its two-year growth and it increased with the lighter summer here in the north. But the more hardy rye eventually took over and was refined and preferred as food crops. Diseases can also have decimated the wheat in favor of rye, and emmerhweat was less in use than rye before the Viking Age. Drying of rye in open air, and then, further drying and sterilization of fungi and other vermin in the ria and shaking of grain band for threshing on the floor, boasts the best seed out at shaking. Finnish juureinen was favored far beyond Finland's borders in the Middle Ages. It was considered to be twice as effective, and therefore, the double charge.

Year 1757 writes Johan David Cneiff

Year 1757 writes Johan David Cneiff on how agriculture can be supported in Ostrobothnia (Ahokas 2009 44), "That is known that the so called Wasa - Rye, which to a greater deal was bought by the other places in Ostrobothnia, is all over Sweeden simply quotationed for as Seed - Rye, such as simply all over the very best, and with its long and thick seeds, after harvest, the very best harvest, and to such drawn-important, which has largest cernals, and for the weight the most heavy Rye, to Swedish Rye , that have been sown, and have been judged with the ordinary, which in the same places have been growen. ----- Though I do not fear that I should bee accused for a unreasonable Proposal, one ought to sow not more than a half Barrel on a completely Barrellands field, which also comes in one and the same field sowing a whole Barrel Swedish Rye, as usual. It is proved, that in Östergötland, after a Barrel of sowed Rye on two Barrellands field, of real Finnish Rye, so kallad Hållola / heller and b ig and fertil Wasa / Rye, has harvested on good drained soil, 30 to 40, and also more Barrels, strife and good Rye: Which in the third generation ignoble exit, and ought to be changed if possible, from the mentioned Finnish places. "

Ergot

 

Rye has a fungus - "enemy", Claviceps purpurea; antonild, meldröye, mutterkorn (nut grains), hungerkorn (grain famine), bockhorn, enspore (hahn track), rukkitungal, tungaltera, tungalpea, nõgitera, nõgipea and ergot among the many names. These fungi produce toxic alkaloids, among several other ergotamine. I can not explain this better than the lecturer Harry Svensson, (parentheses are mine):

"At this known fungus, Claviceps purpurea, endurance values (spores), sclerotia (spore packs) and askospores (fungal spores in fruit body / stroma) is performing the spread. When the Rye blossom - Claviceps is parasiteing on this plants, but attacking other grass - infekterar askosporerna fruktämnena, arbitrary genomdragas of the sponge hyphae (contiguous cells) and and soon turns to a personal testimony, soft fårad myceliemassa (network cells). In fårorna gonna sit konidiebärare hopade, and and they secrete Otro mängder of oval, genome skin league endurance values. The bakas in a sweet taste duck vätska, "honneydew," which simultaneously fluids and and drop down från Axén. It now has beskrivna konidiestadiet tidigare, when the sponge utvecklingshistoria Icke was utredd, beskrivits under the name Sphacelia segetum (ergot). Lockade the Cute vätskan visits flugor and and other insects they infekterade blommorna och able därigenom contributions till konidiernas spridning that också in någon Mondays can förmedlas of rain ock wind. So småningom upphör emellertid konidieavsöndringen, they hittills soft myceliekropparna converted till hornartade sclerotia, which ytan är svartvioletta but inuti consists of a vit parenkymliknande mycelievävnad. As the deras tillväxt progress wheel as long skjuta Inferential bortåt out an inch or more clocks småaxen, in the top of sklerotierna konidiebildningen Langst was continued, but the evening smooth torka Sphacelia-Aven dar hyferna ihop och pictures when it looked kallade mössan. It är Dessa sclerotia, which go under the name mjöldrygor. When Fard Raag är att skördas have emellertid maange mjöldrygor Redan lossnat och Bankruptcy down on the ground, the dar Mylla down and and spend the winter. If the humidity är tillräcklig and and the ej be alltför deep nedbäddade, "heal" the Nasta spring, the wild saga från it hard sklerotievävnaden utvecklas maange small fruit bodies or riktigare stromautskott, which consist of a sterile, rödgult shafts and and a klotrunt, mörkrött huvud with flasklika perithecier (small round containers with spores, which escape through the ostiole - "hole" in the fullness of time) in the outer insänkta vävnadsskiktet. Huvudena now night and and jämnt flavored ground ytan. Was and and one of the eight cylindrical sporsäckarna pictures trådformiga askosporer. Dessa matured broad Raag time for flower research, Sprider with the wind till rågblommornas field (scar), Dar easily Fxd och åstadkomma a infektion "(Svensson 1934).

Since ergot is much more common in rye than other grains, it has probably followed with rye and started on this. It is clear that not everyone has had "hands are clean." Ergotism, antonild and many other names, this fateful fatal diseases had. It is a good deal documented, in the Rhine Valley 857 AD and the year 944 AD over 40,000 died in France. Year 1039 AD the epidemic broke out again here. King Magnus II. Sigurdson died in 1069 of ergotism only 21 years old. He was probably infected abroad. The list goes on. The disease brought boils on the skin. Fingers, arms, and legs will often had to amputated. The body withered away, and nervous twitching, diarrhea, hallucinations and madness leading to death. The sick were punished by God or cursed, it was thought. Whole communities died out, because it improved somewhat throughout the Middle Ages. But when the bubonic plague (Yersinia pestis) attacks in the years 1348 to 1350, it was more dreadful than ever in Northern Europe. It was cold, damp summers, as ergotism flourished simultaneously with the plague. In the summer of 1355 broke out contagious madness in England, and the year 1374 the same happened in Germany. This situation helped to provoke huuhta shifting cultivation. The swiddeners who were "far away in the spruce forest" was least affected by mortality, and this was of course identified in the present time. The swiddeners moved often, and in addition they sterilized their cultivation fields every time it was burned. They also cut carefully the grass growth's on the nearest abandonned swidden fields, and the cows grazing the grass down on those who were further away than the harvestable grass fields. The worse the climate, the further away they had to obtain winter fodder. In this environment it was difficult for ergot to gain entry. Huuhta was the mighty protection in these lush pine forests, but it does not preclude warfare and other things could also push people away.

Huuhta

 

This word has a semantic context similar to ergotism symptoms; Huutaa = scream about it / scream / high (hüüda, hõikama, hõigata, karjuma). Huuhaa = losing your mind / crazy / fuzzy case (peast põrunud, segane asi). Huhtoa = gesticulate / striving hard (vehkida, rabelda, rassida). Huhta = field in use (ale maa). Huhtikuu = april (jürikuu). Huhtasien = morel mushrooms. Huuhta - swidden boomed as a result of ergotism attacks in general.

Fire

Natural forest fires after lightning was the cause of the first clearing in the woods. It offered the opportunity to shifting cultivation. Thus, homo erectus was provoked to manipulation of fire. And those who had first succeeded in controlling the fire, were superior beings, who got the best opportunity to develop further. There is reason to characterize the man as the creature who master the fire. That fire caused by lightning, is rather the exception than the rule. In 90 of 100 cases, the fires is man's work, with or without their will. In contrast to some researchers' opinion, the fire must be classified as an anthropogenic factor of great importance (Stewart 1956 125).

What we know about the grassy plains and barren deserts in subtropical and tropical areas, supported the theory that they are man-made by the fire. Assumption that humans have used fire in their service very far back in time, is strongly supported by several research fields (Stewart 1956 129).

The first cultivation of food crops has probably been staying in sloping forested terrain. There is excess water good drainage and adequate water supply as night dew in the hot summer nights. Here the forest fields in a V - shape with the top at the top of the hill and the base line down to the water or swamp bottom. After drying, the fall was burned, and so was the land cleared of weed seeds and diseases. The cultivation of food crops was followed by a period of grass growth, before the forest did take the fall back, often as a change in forest type with other woods.

Charcoal from forest fire together with pollen from cultivated plants are preserved in deposits in the sediment in stagnant lakes. This reveals the history of fire and therefore human history (Patterson 1987 3-23).

It is the readable layers of pollen and charcoal in these sediments, which provide a picture of the vegetation development. Such studies have shown that there was a marked increase in prevalence in food crops South Scandinavia in the period from 200 BC to 400 AD and also from 750 AD to 1000 AD. (Berglund 2002).

Charcoal and pollen are well preserved under such stable conditions, which can be used as a source of information about past cultivation. A number of studies have developed many theories about whether human agriculture may have affected the natural vegetation. Johs. Iversen (Iversen 1934 341-356, 1941 68) was the first who observed the relationship between an increase in coal layers, while at the same time a decline in the amount of pollen from oak and pine.

This discovery led him into the idea that fire was used to remove the forest. And because the fire appeared in the hard flammable foliage, he assumed that the fire was caused by human activity. From this he developed his primare highly debated landnam - hypothesis. When he found the same vegetation change at three different locations (Iversen 1949 1-25), he concluded that such a correlation could only be one and the same cause. Landnam could not take place simultaneously at completely different places without that it was common practice among the people. He presented (Iversen 1952 62-103) pollen and charcoal - chart from West Greenland which supported the hypothesis, while he made a series of experiments in collaboration with archaeologists, to prove that early humans could have affected the vegetation in the way he theorized over ( Iversen 1956 36-41).

Iversen also gave a convincing pollen / charcoal study in the Draved forest on the southwest Jutland (Iversen 1964 59-70, Steenberg 1979). Now, pollen / charcoal studies and vegetation history obtained using new methods, such as C 14 and thermoluminescens, and human activity can therefore be studied further back in the time one than before.

Archaeological surveys in Denmark have shown that the village have got the area marked by a fence from the start, even though development inside this fence was a long time and in several stages, before the area was fully utilized (Jensen 1979 193).

This strengthens the hypothesis that the village is on the old swidden with fence around it. clan, tribe chose always abandoned swidden as a new settlement. The researchers say that it looks as if "the village's scope has already been staying at the planned creation." It has not been able to follow most of the existing villages still further back in time than the ca.1000 - 1200 AD. This is due probably to the villages existance at this location. Before this time, were they "walk - villages".

The research considers it a serious lack of source material that almost completely missing from ca.400 AD the Viking Age. During this period, with a warmer climate, the move was minimal and new little prominent, and where too difficult for our time 's researchers. Shifting cultivation is the reason for the move of Iron Age villages. Access to forest adjudged frequency and extent of the move. By transition to agriculture, the villages were lying in the same place. Preparation and improvement of the same piece of land became the dominant culture shape.

In Denmark, the establishment of villages during the Viking Age harsh climate was so extensive, that black few of those we know today has existed much further back than the late Viking and early Medieval .This is proven on Fyn, including by thermoluminescens - dating. Northwest Germany and Holland, there was no expansion in the same period. The tendency was rather the opposite, according to the archaeological investigations. The villages here can be traced further back than in Denmark. After the Viking era arable farming took over food production in Denmark, and shifting cultivation disappeared. This resulted in a firmer division of the area, a parish - structure. And in the aftermath of this new agricultural goods supplied – followed the formation and development of the nobility and class society, as we know it from the written sources .

In Norway, some population groups held to their landscape, such as. Heidmork and Raumariki. The single economic unit, extended family or clan , has again had its territory, which were often separated from others by rivers, mountains or other natural boundaries. Within its area ran a mobile cultivation and livestock breeding.

In the north, grass production was more important than grain, and grass growth inside the swidden led to the domestication of the reindeer. The reindeer could be tempted, and it encroached on the grass field (vuoma) increasing ca.800 to 1000 AD.

The chief of Troms told about this when he came to England, "Ottar was was very rich on the property that was theyr fortune foremost, the wild animals. He dispensed, when he came to the King, 600 unsould tame reindeer, and sex of these was domesticated. These are very valuable for the Saami, because they use them for catsching wild reindeer "(Ross 1940 21).

This domestication was repeated during the "Little Ice Age" 1550 - 1750 AD

When shifting cultivation in the Nordic region decreased and the processing of the soil with plow and harrow took over in late Viking Age and Middle Ages, was the swidden clan,extended family , split up. Now you have the smaller unit, the family / family establish themselves, and the number of farms increased greatly. Abandonned swidden plots were new entrants, and the old terms of shifting cultivation was named types of farms.

In Eastern Norway - Rud farms became a large group. Farm names can be divided into three groups: in the oldest group's name with the extensions - farm - land, - wine, - um - hem - hvam, - kvam - ing (s), - le / öv - löse / a, - vin, - set and sta / ed before the Viking Age.

In the other group name - by - torp - toft, - böl is from the Viking Age.

In the third group are names with extensions - rud, - holt - tvet and similar forest and clearing names from the Middle Ages. Eastern Norway had many rud - farms. "When dwellings were permanent, in other words, went on to become a farm, they have virtually from the outset not only consisted of cultivated land and home stead, but also of the" adjacent delights, "which in medieval legal language often described as" lunnendi "or less frequently as" good, umbota and àfang "(Hougen 1947 96). " With theim gögnum ok lunnendum sem thar eigu that lie "says the Diplomatarium Norvegicum. II, 55 Clearing of arable land led to the introduction of property rights. The soil piece belonged from now on, the family , in ndividuell title came later. User rights to common lands, erämark that were previously reserved for great men klanhövdinger, was in the Middle Ages transferred to the farmers (Rynning 1934 59).

This was a natural consequence of the transition from shifting cultivation with large units / clans to field use with smaller family units.

Domesticating animals

How domestication of animals have occurd has been staying as a large headache in the cultural history research. It has been staying necessary to establish a chronological framework that various forms of herding and other activities in the taiga / tundra people would fit into, in order to progress in this research on domestic animal story. Many different theories about the origins of reindeer husbandry is presented through the years, and I venture to come up with another: There was never a particular starting point with a gradual spread from there. Different variants of pastoralism arose independently at different times in different places. The reason for the rise is in relation to the swidden procedure. Domestication of animals evolved as a result of the cultivation of human food crops , which are also suitable for animals . The human endurance in a selected habitat, depends on there not being an ecologically dominant, otherwise it will move or destroy its habitat, which means that people either change their culture or move. Domestication of animals naturally slows moving, and largely eliminates the desire for increased successful migration (Darling 1956 778).

Domestication of the reindeer and the development of various forms of husbandry has made it possible to inhabit demanding areas without good enough farming opportunities for rescue.Here, people have survived on animal products like meat, milk, leather etc. But as far as the forest was available, an abandoned swidden (vuomen) has produced a good grass growth. As these plots were fenced in , they were used as grazing plots or for hay production. These annual swidden plots were eventually so many, that domestication nearest resigned itself. Wild animals broke through the fence to find food, thus becoming accustomed to humans , and animals were easily captured. During periods of poor climate, the influx of hungry wild animals increasing, because they got less natural food than before. So did shifting cultivation become a natural course of the domestication of animals , and subsequent animal husbandry was an obvious result . The good grass production after swidden, befor the forest took the area back , was the prerequisite for domestication of reindeer herds in northern Eurasia (Jettmar 1952 737-766). Perhaps it is not surprising that the skåne people (Scanians) and the Saami are close relatives, according to DNA studies.

Saami calls the fencing of the reindeer and hunting facility for wild reindeer; vuomen or gardde. The words are also found in old Norwegian, vômb / hvammer or gardr. Hvammer is abandoned swidden (Fritzner 1863 302), and gardr is inhabited hvammer. Hvammer was in the Viking Age name for a grass grown area. The saga speaks of a habitable hvammer.

The clan leader Ottar from the North of Norway had domesticated reindeer (Alfred the Great did Orosius' Historiarum --- processed and translated into Old English around. 900 AD). Eyvind Finnsson from southern Hålogaland said 900 AD, that due to the cold "must keep his goats indoors in the summer, such as Saami" (Jönsson 1912 to 1915).

Later in the Middle Ages tame reindeer nearly disappeared. This is due to less mobility in swidden cultivation under the climatic improvement. It was less abandoned swidden plots, vuoma, and better natural supply of food for the wild animals. But under the "little ice age" the domestication increased, because the number of vuoma again rose. Domestication of reindeer has consequently been staying in direct interaction with the active swidden cultivation. Likewise, one can generally say that domestication of animals and cultivation is in interaction with each other, shifting cultivation is a prerequisite for domestication.

Swidden procedure

Shifting cultivation has historically provided the continuity of the human food supply. This has strong traces of cultural history, and it has changed the vegetation and thus the landscape in a long-term ecologically rotation in balance with the natural environment. Shifting cultivation utilizes today marginal areas that do not interest mechanized economies. As long as a swiddener clan can dispose a large enough area, their rotation - ecological cycle of the natural environment, but devastating if utilization is too high. European commercial economies have over the last 500 years displaced the local population in the so called "third world".

The European landscape was dominated by forest before people took it in use. Forest floor had a sparse vegetation on the rich organic biomass, which was composed of semi-degraded stored crop residues. Mites and amounts of other microorganisms are needed to break down this organic material, convert it to nitrogen and other nutrients for plants and other living organisms. This process may sound's nearest to you put your ear to the ground after burning. When forests are burned, the ashes and the rain make alkaline lye, which neutralizes the acidic humus layer below. Suddenly, the microorganisms have far more favorable living conditions than they had in the cold acidic ground, and they reproduce explosively in the warm earth.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Mattila, sibling Varmland 1991. The warm ground after burning promotes rapid germination, if the rain comes immediately after burning and seeding. The picture was taken a few days later. Photo: Per Martin Tvengsberg

 

How was it with the contemporary grain, a far higher yield than we can now dream of. Such a resource base is hardly enough preserved anywhere today, it has long been exhausted.Stationary shifting cultures have all had their origins in the fertile agriculture, and they are almost all exploited humus reserves. Their destruction has usually been staying impoverishment of the soil, while the trigger was often war. Today's chemical and genetic engineering mineraltilförsel of food crops is far more serious; quantity rather than quality is, unfortunately, the current goal. No chemicals have ever been able to move to live life without the help of life itself, which alone shall be responsible for this process (Pommeresche, Soil, No. 2).

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Mattila, sibling Varmland 1991. Ryesprouts after a few weeks of growth.

 

Photo: Per Martin Tvengsberg

Swidden procedure

First part of the swidden procedure was to select the most appropriate area of the forest. This had such great significance, that especially trained young men were sent out to select the best grove. The biggest trees had a ring of bark peeled off so that they dried.

When the right time came they had to cut the forest and / or provide windfall by means of various sophisticated techniques. Ax was the only brought tool. The killed trees would cover the ground smoothly, and the fall was left to dry. Cutting of the largest branches gave accelerated drying. The season of burning was determined by the crop's sowing culture and geographical location.

Burning should occur after a drying periode, but before the rain came, and on a day with suitable wind. When noita / shaman had decided the day, he chose material from the fall and lit a "sacred" flame. If it was burning well, there were signs that the time had come, but burned it badly, it was a signal that one would wait. This test could save the clan for fatal errors. This small fire was connected with the powers. The fire here was later used by the ignition of the fall, and the fire should extinguish without human help. The whole clan was helping at the ignition, this had to happen synchronously. The fall had to burn from the edges toward the center. This meant that they fired over a sloping fall long before it lit on the sides and finally the bottom, wind and humidity taken into account. Noita conducted the ignition with the authoritative voice, after he had checked the edges of the surrounding forests to prevent forest fires. A typical Finnish way was to walk backwards and anti-clockwise three times around the fall (Lönnrot 2002 110) and the recitation aloud, "Polta kivet,polta kannot, heitta mina musta mulda ', Burn, stones, burning stumps, bring me black soil.

But it happened that the occasional "tull ball/silly ball" caused forest fires (tulipalu).The thick smoke from the fall generated rain, it was said. Rain Powers observed the smoke, and they took it as a signal that people were now almost ready to receive the rain. The fall was set on fire so that it burned slowly and completely, the fire would spread down the hill and against the wind and inward from the edges toward the center of the fall. Slow burning at low temperature, 200 degrees, giving the coveted black aska. Warmer, 400 degrees, more intense burning produced white ash. It shows that all organic material is burned. White areas after burning should be avoided. A layer of black ash and coal pieces also contributed to higher temperatur in the sunshine, approx. 20 degrees higher than in the shade. This was a great advantage for germination, and led to a faster decomposition of the organic material.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1. Swidden rye from Digerberget, Torsby Värmland, 50000 grains pr.kg.. 2. Swidden rye from Revholt, Grue Finnskog, 55,000 grains per. kg. 3. Sangaste rye from Estonia, 20,000 grains per. kg. 4. Korpiruis from Sweden, 30000 grains pr.kg. 5. Swidden rye from Mattila, Östmark Värmland, 50000 grains pr.kg.

Photo: Erki Animägi. Royal Academies of Science Actions

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Slaves at work in swidden in Virginia, USA 1798. The area has the usual zig - zag fence around. Swidden was common among the first Europeans in North America. (Stewart 1956 129). Watercolour by Benjamin Henry Latrobe. Maryland Historical Society, Baltimore. National Geographic, September 1987 354

 

Although every precaution was taken, all the wooden material did not burn completely. The biggest black logs were used as a fence around the fall. Where the trees were just stright, the fence was notched up in zigzag form. Rice and twigs were used as fence there were gnarled deciduous forest was burnt. Fencing was required for protection against grazing animals.

Sowing took place in the hot ashes, providing a rapid germination, when the rain came soon after sowing. Seeds that fell on the stone were swept into the ashes. The timing of the firing was very important. Weather forcast was therefore conducted at various sophisticated procedures. The pendulum was a common tool (Hamilton 1986 53).

Study of the entrails of a fresh slaughtered animal, traditional ceremonies (rain dance) with the entire clan present and other "primitive" practices.

Shifting cultivation have completely different characteristics than agriculture. The cultivated area was the biggest variable factor in shifting cultivation. This has confused many explanatory models in research on agriculture. Decreasing yields by harder climate , was compensated with a corresponding increase of the area. In the opposite case, when the climate improved, could afford to svedje a smaller area. This relationship between swidden size / number and climate change is often misinterpreted or ignored in the research. Climate change has always had a direct effect on shifting cultivation.

In Southern Europe Mediterranean climate the forest from time immemorial for the most part was open evergreen leaves and pine forests. After svedjing this forest had less capacity for regeneration than the forest north of the Alps.

In Northern Europe was usually only one crop harvested befor grass growth took over, while in southern suitable fall was used for several years and the soil was quickly exhausted. Shifting cultivation ceased such Therefore, much earlier in the south than the north.

Already in classical times most of the forests in the Mediterranean had disappeared. The classical authors wrote about the great forests (Semple 1931 261-296).

 

Homer writes

Homer writes of wooded Samoth Race, Zacynthos, Sicily and other wooded land (Homer Iliad, XIII, XIV ---- 0.1 to 2). The authors give us the general impression that the Mediterranean countries had more forest then than now, but that it had already lost much forest, and that it was left there in the mountains (Darby 1956 186).

 

It is clear that Europe had been staying wooded, not only in the north. However, during the Roman Iron Age and early Viking Age, were forest areas drastically reduced in Northern Europe, and settlements were regularly moved. It is not given any better explanation of this mobility, and the transition to stable settlements from the late Viking period, than the transition from shifting cultivation to stationary use of arable land. At the same time plows appeares as a new group of implement found both in graves and in depots. It can be confirmed that early agricultural people also preferred forest of good quality in the hillside with good drainage, and traces of cattle quarters were also evident here.

The Greek explorer and merchant Pytheas of Marseilles

The Greek explorer and merchant Pytheas of Marseilles made a voyage to Northern Europe, ca.330 BC Part of his itinerary is kept at bl.a.Polybios, Pliny and Strabo. Pytheas had visited Thule which lay six-day voyage north of Britain. There "the barbarians showed us the place where the sun does not go to sleep. It happened because there the night was very short, in some places two, in other places three hours, so that the sun shortly after its fall soon went up again." He says that Thule was a fertile land, "rich in fruits that were ripe only until late in the year, and the people there used to prepare a drink of honey. And they threshed the grain in large houses , because of the cloudy wether and a lot of rain. In the spring they drove the cattle up in the mountain pastures and stayed there all summer. " This description may fit well on the West - Norwegian conditions. Here we meet both dairy farming and drying / threshing in a building (kjone).

Tacitus describes it

In Italy the shifting cultivation was a thing of the past at the birth of Christ. Tacitus describes it as the strange cultivation he had experienced among the Germans, whom he knew well from his stay with them.Rome was entirely dependent on shifting cultivation by the barbarians to survive and maintain "Pax Romana", but when the supply from the colonies "trans alpina" failed, the Roman Empire collapsed.

Tacitus writes 98 AD about the Germans; fields that are more proportionate to the participating growers, are grown common of all, they share their crops with each other by reputation, distribution is easy because there is great access to land, they change soil every year, and it will mark to spare, for they seek not a strenuous job to cramming his fertile and vast land even greater ydelser, by planting apple orchards, cultivated spesial beds or watering gardens, grain is the only thing they insist that the ground will provide. The original text reads, "agri pro numero cultorum ad universis vicinis occupantur, quos mox inter se secundum dignationem partientur, facilitate partiendi camporum spatial praestant, arva per annos mutant, et superest ager, nec enim cum ubertate et amplitudine soli labore contendunt, ut pomaria conserant et prata separent et hortos rigent, sola terrae seges imperatur."

Although there has been staying claimed by German and American researchers that this was multi-replaced agriculture, it may not be any doubt that it is a matter of shifting cultivation (Arenander 1923 96 ff.)

A W Liljenstrand wrote 1857 in his doctoral dissertation, "About changing of soil" (p. 5 ff.), That Tacitus discuss the shifting cultivation : "arva per annos mutant". Later Finnish colleagues Gösta Grotenfeldt and Kustaa Vilkuna, had the same opinion as Liljenstrand . Many scientists are remaining, however, in the German / American view, which explains the migrations in Europe by the strangest "wank (o) e (r) l / modige" hypotheses.

Folkwanderings in Europe, after the Roman Empire, and immediately before the Viking Age

Folkwanderings in Europe , after the Roman Empire, and immediately before the Viking Age , has as its premise, that there was still more profitable for the peoples of Central Europe to move on to new forests after the best parcels were exhausted, than to wait for the new forest to grow up. Therefore, the peoples of the temperate zone in Europe svedjebrukere as long as the forests permitted.

This exploitation of forests explains the rapid and elaborate move.

This exploitation of forests explains the rapid and elaborate move. But the forest could not tolerate this in the long run, it took first an end at the Mediterranean. The forest here had not the same vitality as the powerful coniferous forest in Central Europe. Deforestation was partly caused by burning for pasture fields. Missing timber delivery led to higher prices and more stone constructions in the Roman Empire (Stewart 1956 123). The forest also decreased gradually northwards in Europe, but here in the Nordic countries it has survived.

The Clans in the pre Roman Italy

The Clans in the pre Roman Italy seems to have been living in temporary locations , not in established cities. They cultivated small patches of land, guarded their sheep and their cattle, traded with foreign merchants and fought sometimes with one another, Etruscans, umbriere, ligurianere, sabinere, latinos, campaniere, apulianere, faliscanere and samniter, just to mention a few. These Italic ethnic groups developed their own identity as settlers and warriors ca.900 BC They built forts in the mountains, which now in our time are examined more closely. The forest has hidden them a long time, but eventually now they will give information about the people who built and used these buildings. The ruins of a large samnittisk temple and theater at Pietrabbondante is under investigation. These cultural relics have slumbered in the shadow of the glorious history of the Roman Empire. Many of the Italic tribes realized the benefits of allying with the powerful Romans. When Rome built the Via Amerina 241 BC, the Faliscan people established themselves in cities on the plains, and they collaborated with the Romans on road construction. The Roman Senate had now gradually representatives from many Faliscan and Etruscan families. The Italic tribes are now settled farmers. (Zwingle, National Geographic, January 2005).

Julius Caesar writes

 

Julius Caesar writes about Svebians, "Commentarii de Bello Gallico, "book 4.1 ; private and secluded fields are not by them, "privati ac separati agri apud eos nihil est", they can not stay more than one year in a place for cultivation sake, "Neque longius anno remanere uno in loco colendi causa licet ". The Svebes lived between the Rhine and the Elbe. About the Germans, he writes: No one has a particular field or area for themselves, for the magistrates and chiefs every year give a field to the people and the clan, which has gathered so much ground in such places that seem good for them and drive the people after a year to continue on to somewhere else. "Neque quisquam agri modum certum aut fines habet proprios, sed magistratus ac principes in annos singulos gentibus cognationibusque hominum, qui tum una coierunt, a quantum et quo loco visum est agri attribuunt atque anno post alio transire cogunt" book 6, 22 .

Strabon (63 BC - about 20 AD) also writes about sveberne in Geographicon VII, 1, 3, common to all the people in this area is that they can easily change residence, because of their sordid way of life, and that they do not grow any field and does not collect property, but live in temporary huts. Naurishment they get for the most from their livestock like nomads, therefore, they also pack all their goods in wagons and go on to where they want. Horazius writes year 17 BC ( Carmen säculare, 3, 24, 9 ff .) about a people of Macedonia, The proud Getae also live happy, not measured field grow free food and cereal for them, land that they do not want to grow more than a year, "vivunt et rigidi Getae, immetata quibus iugera liberal fruges et Cererem freunt, nec cultura placet longior annua." Several classical writers have descriptions of shifting cultivation people. Migration Period in Europe was caracterized by many peoples varying shifting cultivation. The exploitation of forests demanded constant displacement, and large areas were deforested.

Jordanes, the author, of ca.550 AD provides information

Jordanes must have been staying of Gothic descent and ended up as a monk in Italy. His work "De origine actibusque Getarum", the Gothic origins and achievements, the author of ca.550 AD provides information on the big island Scandza, which the Goths come from. He expects the tribes who live here, among these are adogit living most northern of all with 40 days of the midnight sun. After adogit comes screrefennae and suehans who also lives in the north. Screrefennae moved a lot and did not bring to the field crops, but made their living by hunting and collecting bird eggs. Suehans was a seminomadic tribe that had good horses like Thüringians and ran fur hunting to sell the skins. It was too far north to grow the grain. Prokopios, ca. 550 AD, also describes a primitive hunter people he calls skrithifinoi. These pitiful creatures had neither wine or corn, for they did not grow any crops. "Both men and women engaged incessantly just hunting, the rich forests and mountains which gives them an endless supply of game and other wild animals." Screrefennae and skrithifinoi is well Sami who often have names such as; skridfinner which probably is a later form derived from skrithibinoi or some similar spelling. The two old terms, screrefennae and skrithifinoi has probably not its origin in the sense of neither ski or finn. Furthermore, in Jordanes' ethnographic description of Scandza are several tribes, and among these are finnaithae "who was always ready for battle" Mixi evagre and otingis that should have lived like wild beasts in mountain caves, "further from them" lived osthrogoth, raumariciae, ragnaricii, finnie, vinoviloth and suetidi that would last prouder than other people.

Adam of Bremen describes Sweden

Adam of Bremen describes Sweden, according to information he received from the Danish king Sven Estridson year 1068, "it is very fruitful, the earth holds many crops and honey, has a greater livestock than all other countries, there are a lot of useful rivers and forests, with regard to women they do not know moderation, they have for their economic position two, three or more wives simultaneously, the rich and the rulers are innumerable. " The latter indicates a kind of extended family structure, and that forests are mentioned specifically as useful, may be associated with shifting cultivation and livesock. The "livestock grazing, as with the Arabs, far out in the wilderness" can be interpreted in the same direction.

The word Viking appears to be older than the Viking Age

The word Viking appears to be older than the Viking Age. It occurs in Exodus, the Alexandrian translation of the 2nd Leviticus, which mentions the Jewish exodus from Egypt. On the voyage across the Read Sea, they are termed; säwicingas. In the Alexandrian Widsith, the far-traveling, occurs the word Viking in line 47; wicinga cynn, clan, and in line 59and 80 The Vikings used the same term for themselves. The word Viking denote mobility, those who deal with travel; Vikja, vik, veik, vikjinn is the old west - Norwegian verb with the same meaning as the word viking. Adam of Bremen tells us that these pirates, Greek words that are related to go (travel), call themselves Vikings, while our countrymen call them ascomanner, ie boaters. The term scegdman is Anglo-Saxon and it also means boaters, and there are several other terms with similar meaning (Askeberg 1944 s.153). The Vikings are associated with robbery and assault, and they got a good deal of written description because of this. The newly established Christian church was subjected to the Vikings robbery, but the background for excursions were the necessary expansion, which was natural for their swidden culture in a time of climate deterioration .

The Vikings explored new forests wherever they were to find. They went westwards to England, Ireland, Iceland, south to France and east to Russia. They were colonizers as they expanded the seating areas and encouraged trade and subsequent town building. That many of them eventually were on robbery says the written sources about. the British Isles was an early goal.There they found good opportunities for swidden cultivation.

Bede (673-735) writes

Bede (673-735) writes in the book in Chapter 1 (1979 Schjöth 13, 16) "Britain is fertile, with large forests and good pasture for cattle and draft animals, in some places also grown wine, --- was the barbarians unable to resist the legion (Roman) attacks. They fled into the forests, remained hidden and made more attacks on the Romans, which they caused great damage. " These "barbarians" were swidden cultivators in the forests they pulled himself in. It is evident from place names, often - by and - thorp, (Domesday Book of 1086).

Newcomers settled outside of the older settlements, usually in sloping terrain (Sawyer 1971 ), favorable for swidden cultivation and subsequent livestock.

A remark from the year 876 reads

Colonization took place in an orderly manner so that the leaders of the viking army could levy taxes and require the services in the areas they had occupied. A remark from the year 876 reads: "Healfdene captured Northumbria and divided the country between himself and his Thanes (Thane, ministris) and let the army cultivated it" (English Historical Documents, 4). Large estates, (shire, sokes, lathes), which included forest was the original economic unit. Pastures, arable land and lakes and salt pans in the coastal areas are also frequently mentioned. Such estates survived longest in the north and west (Barrow 1973 7-68), but eventually they were divided into smaller units where farmers received the ownership. They had now started plowing of the soil.

There are a number of Scandinavian place names in the Danelagen which contain a persons name. More than half of the names of the – by and - thorp contains a persons name, usually a nordic name (Fellows Jensen 1978 276-86).

The dissolution of estates were caused mainly transition from communal swidden cultivation into individual land, and the first farmers name is usually recorded in the farms name.

 

The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle

The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle was originally collected as the vestsaxiske response to the Viking invasion 892 AD (Sawyer 1971 16, 19). This has dominated the view of the Vikings, because there is no corresponding sources from other parts of England. Only small fragments from other sources is preserved as well as the younger versions of the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle or in collections from eleven - and twelve centuries (EHD 3-4).

Historia de Sancto Cuthberto

Historia de Sancto Cuthberto (EHD 6) tells how St. Cuthbert in Northumberland about nine hundred protects fathers legacy against the Vikings. Here we show that the relationships between the English and Norse were not as hostile as the West Saxon sources viewpoint. From the last phase of the Viking raids of King Ethelred the time, there are several written sources with hard attacks and unjust condemnation of the king (Keynes 1978).

Irish chronicle of war

Irish chronicle of war against foreign invaders, "Cogadh Gaedhel re Gallaibh" is written in eleven centuries (Todd 1867). It tells about the Viking raids on eight - and ninehundreds. "Annals of Ulster" contains many reliable original texts, even if they are written on the fifteenth century (O Maille 1910). It is therefore easier to study the Vikings in eight and ninehundreds here than in any other part of the Brittish Isles.

Our knowledge of the Vikings and their world is mainly found in Christian written sources, the oldest written by people wich the Vikings came into contact with (robbed), while the later writings are written by Northerners after they were converted to Christianity. The earliest Nordic is Islendingabok, written by Are Thorgilson between the years 1125 and 1132.

No one should be taking up more land than he could ride around with the fire in one day

Are was probably also involved in assembling the first version of Landnámabók, probably from the same time. According to Landnámabók (1900 103), no one should be taking up more land than he could ride around with the fire in one day together with his ship crew, "at fara eldi um landnám sitt." The first fire was lited at sunrise and it would burn until the sun went down. Furthermore, new fires were lit, so one could see the smoke from the previous one, that marked the selection of the desired land. Archaeological surveys have shown that several original farms in Iceland was abandoned already in 1000 – 1100 AD (Thorarinsson 1976).

Excavations in Thjórsardalur have demonstrated that the farm was abandoned befor Heklaeruption in the year 1104 (Eldjarn 1961). It is likely that the Icelandic settlers tried to recreate the buildings and the social arrangements they were used to from home. The Icelandic community consisted of gôder, princes, and their extended families. Some of the farms are mentioned in particular for their valuable pastures. Later versions of Landnámabók shows that some farms became larger and some decreased in the 1100 and 1200 (Rafnsson 1974 166-181).

Vikings in österled; 1 Gardarike, 2 Large Svithjod, 3 Könugard, 4 Rostov, 5 Kurland, 6 Truso and large parts of the Baltic States got a new swidden cultivation population.

Ulster Annals tell

Ireland was visited by the Vikings that stayed over Winter. Ulster Annals tell of many attacks by several Vikings in the 830 - and 840-years. They often operated from bases inside the country, such as. Lough Ree. Dorestad in the Frankish hinterland was attacked 835 and 836, for later to be the Viking Rorik's seat. Year 851 Vikings wintered for the first time at the Seine.All navigable rivers were investigated by the Vikings, who often settled in the country far from the sea. The Vikings fought as often with as against the Irish, Franks or Bretagnes. Their urge expansion was mainly the traditional expectations of continuously acquire new and better swidden forests. Even expeditions to Spain, Africa and Italy in the mid-800 - was probably initially based on the expansion traditions, but evolved into raids as many of the others.

Ibn Rustah writes

 

The Vikings in east are referred to in several Arabic fonts. Ibn Rustah writes that Rus ravaged among the Slavs, and took them as slaves. Rus committing not farming, they had no cities, but several merchants, their only occupation was trading with sable, squirrel and other furs which they sold to anyone who wanted to buy, according to history. Their biggest political influence was the contribution to the founding of the Russian empire, but the claim that they did not engage in agriculture, is probably very questionable.

In the "Annales Bertiniani" tells

In the "Annales Bertiniani" tells the story of a Greek delegation came to the Emperor Louis Ingelheim years 839 According, there were some men who called themselves "Rhos" They asked for the emperor's permission to return home through the land of the Franks, because the road they had come to Greece was very dangerous. These "Rhos" should have been of the Swedes tribe. This is the first time "rhos" or "rus" refers to the people of Russia in the Viking Age. What the word rhos means is much discussed, one theory is that it can mean those who are rowing; ródr.

In Nestor chronicle

In Nestor chronicle, written in Kiev at the beginning of eleven centuries, are the first dynasty back to the year 862, when Rurik, the Varjage, who along with his younger brothers to have been invited to rule over slaves, chuder, kriviker and ves.

Ibn Fadlan, who participated in an Islamic delegation from the caliph al - Muktadir year 921

A source from the early nihundreds written by Ibn Fadlan, who participated in an Islamic delegation from the caliph al - Muktadir years 921 to Bulgar on the Volga River (Canard 1958 41-145). Fadlan admired northerner physique, they were red and long as date palms, but they were the ugliest creatures that God had created. The men always wore swords, axes and knives, while the women had neck rings of precious metal and collar of green glass beads. He experienced a varjagkings boat burial.

Emperor Constantine of Byzantium Porphyrogennetos

Emperor Constantine of Byzantium Porphyrogennetos also mentions "rus" (Obolensky 1962). In "De imperio administrando" from ca.950 states that "the boats coming from the far straight Rus at Constantinople are from Novgorod, where Svyatoslav, Igor's son, Prince of Rus, has his residence." As rich finds districts of ancient Scandinavian affairs in Russia can governorates Jaroslav and Vladimir on the upper Volga be mentioned, "There the hilly and friendly burch terrain in many ways reminds of a middle Swedish landscape" (Arbman 1936).

[[File:Варяги.jpg|thumb|right|300px|''The Invitation of the [[Varangians]]'' by [[Viktor Vasnetsov]]: [[Rurik]] and his brothers [[Sineus]] and [[Truvor]] arrive at the lands of the [[Ilmen Slavs]].]]

The Vikings in east were denoted as varjages, väringes, varangians. This last is an old expression that means lush forest. This is preserved in geographical names. The term has naturally enough been staying as names forming only in areas where the (rich) forest was a rarity. In northern Fenno - Scandia and around the White Sea are a dozen of such names in areas of forest. Varanger in Finnmark is another example. The Finnish name of the fortress Vardøhus is Varjakanlinna. Varjakanmaa was the Vikings homeland writes Lönnrot in the Finnish-Swedish Lexicon (Helsinki 1880 900).

In Estonia, a couple of woodlands have this name, and they stand out from their surroundings by its very good fretility.

The extended family was the normal social structure of the Vikings (Sjøvold 1979 53-72), but has since become uncommon in most parts of the Nordic countries (Winberg 1973 192-97). It has since been staying plain where shifting cultivation was still dominant naurishment, and are up to our time in some remote places in Karelia. Moreover, it is shown that a large number of families increased after the fifteenth century rather than decreased in certain areas (Tornberg 1972).

There was the tribe that was responsible for the earliest Viking raids on 800's, where the primare goal was to find new forests forb swidden. But from the end of the ninehundreds it was often the kings who led the expedition and swidden expansion.

The ecclesiastical and secular authorities in Riga in 1230 set up an appointment with kurer (agricultural population), which now were converted to Christianity. The Kures agreed that for each swidden they would pay an annual fee of half a pound of rye, as they should pay the same fee for next year's crop on the same so called harrowed land. But those who really wanted to processed soil with plow and harrow pulled by horses instead of burning new forest field, would only pay half a pound (Bunge 1889 137-38). The authorities wanted to get rid of shifting cultivation, because the place-bound farmer was easier controllable and tax collection easier.

HUUHTA

 

Savo - karelians had a sophisticated system that secured them the best spruce forest for their cultivation. In a rune - poem about Finnforest and its spruce forests it is said, "Gåivu on mehdien valgoinen valhe": that means, the burch is the forest´s white lie. The best spruce forest does not have elements of burch trees. It comes only after the forest is swidden once or twice. To find new forest was an important prerequisite for securing the future. Noita chose flawless young men, who were sent out in late autumn (lähteä eriin) to finde and mark the best forest (eräpühä) for his clan. The wooded area was marked with the clan's personal mark (puumerkki) on the most visible trees. The woven band / stripe of the clan was fastened to a tree (kirjavainen puu). The young man flashed trees around the area, to inform any other clans that the place was occupied. From now on, the selected area was respected by others, it was taboo (pühä) for them, no matter how far the young man had traveled to find this woodland. When people from his own clan returned (tulla erästä) early in the spring, they were prepared and able to describe the marked places by means of poetic runes. Runes performed by the young man, made it easier for the rest of the clan to remember how to find the way to this place later.

Homosexuality

Noita had a social organization related to the berdache or bate at the Crow Indians (Angelino, Shedd 1955 121). The relationship between noite and his chosen young men seem to be related to homosexuality. Noite also found his successor among these men (ragr, argr) (Sonnenschein 1966 76). These young men were selected if they were without fault. It is often mentioned that they had to have flawless teeth. This may be because they should performe the desired sound (screatus / scritobini), sound, song (kirjua, huutaa, seid lätir, galdr) to vibrate the drum skin . Homosexuality has a specific biological basis, but still human sexuality is profoundly associated with social conditions, and therefore takes different forms in different cultural situations.Some sexual traits are the result of a common experience, a result of altered development in the physiological control (Ford, Beach 1951 3-5).

In some cultures, the man who took on the feminine role was regarded as a powerful shaman. He (noita, tietäjä, velho, seidmadr) was a highly respected person, who could see into the future, predict. Berdache can be traced in ancient cultures, and are called institutionalized homosexuality by some authors (Ford, Beach 1951 130).

This organization is found in the sagas of Snorri Sturluson: Harald Fairhair kap.35, Olav Trygvasson kap.62 - 63 gives examples of the Christian opposition to such old customs(Hirschfeld 1902 247-263).

Pühä refers to human power similar to the supernatural power

The word (pühä) denotes, circumscribed, limited, inaugurated (Eurener 1860, Lönnrot 1930) and is associated with a holy place, a sacred object or sacred forests ; pühä ouda (Lästadius 1959 34). Pühä refers to human power similar to the supernatural power (Vilkuna 1956 193). Pühä seems to have changed the meaning from being an engineering term to become an abstract concept (Vilkuna 1956 188, Anttonen 1994 26). Suomen Kieler Etymologinen Sanakirja (1962 668) explains pühä in Värmland Finnforest as a newer term for the devil, shaman spirit (noidan henki), bewitched (noiduttu, noidan pilaama), something that a magician, shaman have destroyed (saastainen) contaminated, which relates to the sick and even to death. Same words in Udmurt, Komi and Zyrien language; Veža also hand the importance devil. Eräpühä means a remote holy place, where the best spruce forest grows.The corresponding secular is (piha), yard at (pihalaaja), the human race with its yard tree (pihlaja), rowan.

The marked huuhta - area, and especially the burned fall was pühä before it was sown, before its transformation into a rye producing area for the benefit of the clan. Eräpühä was associated with the place where huuhta gave the maximum yield, far away in the spruce forest ( erämaa). Here they could also bring their dead, because the dead body should go back to nature after the final journey into the unknown forest. Such places were on the edge of their "world"(maailma) and thus in contact with witchcraft (hiisi) and ancestral connection to life here. Eräpühä was associated with the place between life and death. There was neither forest nor rye field , it was during the change (muuttuva pühä).

Clan had marked up many potential swidden plots in the forest

Clan had marked up many potential swidden plots in the forest having different qualities, size, moisture, forest quality, terrain, soil, wildfire risk and many other considerations regarding natural conditions. Noite should at any time select the location that could provide the best crop. If he believed / knew that the nearest future should be moist, he chose a plot with the sloping terrain and thus good drainage. Was a dry summer in sight, he preferred places surrounded by natural water, so as to prevent forest fires and also ensure adequate moisture for growth. Otherwise, there were many other factors he took into consideration by the site selection, deliberations which later became irrelevant in the context of agriculture. The clan also had many swidden plots at different stages in the process simultaneously, and cooperation between clans with different specialties were common. Thus they secured crops every year.

Shifting cultivation was seasonal work

Shifting cultivation was seasonal work, which meant that there were long periods of rest in between. These intervals were used for training procedures. Cooperation procedures were drilled, so that the complex procedures would work well when it came. This training was mainly of literature art. It was a poetic session in plenary. All parts of the swidden procedure was described to the smallest detail by means of rune poems. Everyone should learn their runes and sing them for the clan.Such ceremonial performances included song, dance, music and role play. They were repeated several times until all the clan members were familiar with his role . This was important as the preparation and maintenance of the individual's efforts in the big picture when everything had to fall into place during the swidden process.

When a selected forest area was to be used

When a selected forest area was to be used, the axe men (kirvesmies) killed the trees, or it could be arranged successive felling by means of the wind. The felled forest was left to dry over the summer and the weight of the snow next winter pressed the wood together so that the burning would be better. During this drying period the clan craftsmen selected out their issues to the appliances and other household needs. Earth was not processed, but large trees were in advance socked or call peeled, so they could dry on the root. Stumps after the felled trees were not touched. Large stones were not handled, you walked around the stone. Only the half-burned logs that were left behind were used as fence around the swidden.

Before midsummer the second year noita found time for burning the huuhta swidden. This timing was important for the result. Rain after burning formed a hard crust of ash, and the small rye seeds failed to penetrate it. Then the rye was exposed to wind and voracious birds. The burning must take place at the right time, befor the turn of the weather from the high pressure to low pressure. But not before the fall had cooled enough so that the rye was not damaged by too high temperature. The fall should not be cold, the heat in the soil promoted germination. To determine whether cooling was sufficient, was awarded the person, who first rolled around naked in the hot field. That this has been interpreted as ritual fertility dance, so get care. After all this work everybody had to swim.

Swidden culture has therefore suported sauna culture. Although shifting cultivation was forgotten, continued sauna bath in the future emperor of Rome. The bells at the bath was ringing to tell that the bathroom was hot, "Sonat bellorum termarum". It was not only the bells the church took over, but also parts of the bath ceremony. The smoke from the Sistine Chapel after the Pope - election have old pre-Christian trait.

Forest rye has given yields of more than 12,000 fold

Forest rye has given yields of more than 12,000 fold. From one rye seed was growing up a 2.6 meter high and 3.8 meters wide sod. The biggest tussock consisted of 162 straws with the average of 75 grains per. ears. I found ten rye in a rie in Grue Finnskog in 1973. These were grown at Domkirkeodden, Hamar 1988 to 1990 under the leadership of Cecilie Jensen (1995 Tvengsberg 160).

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cecilie Jensen next to swidden rye in the herb garden at the Cathedral ruins, Hamar. A lomskinn with rye (0.5 kg.) was sufficient as bankers seed. It would according to my experience indicate a crop of 6,000 kg. Photo: Per Martin Tvengsberg 1990

Erik Pontoppidan writes

 

Erik Pontoppidan writes about swidden cultivation in "The first Attempt to Norway's natural history", 1752, I. Part: "This is doe to the consentrated spiritus vegetativus in the ash, which do not have time to exhale (evaporate) but penetrate into the seed and makes a wonderful heel effect, why also chymici meditate their regenerationem plantarium combustarium at this spirituc vegetativo, though a big deel of it without doubt by swidden - fire, such as oupen, scatter and fly away. "

Intense interaction sharpened the cultural boundary

Huuhta swidden culture was the cultural sustain, who maintained the ethnic border between find the forest people and their Swedish and Norwegian neighbors in the village. The fact that they constantly were in intense interaction sharpened the cultural boundary.

All villages in Finnforest had his magic guy and / or signings woman

All villages in Finnforest had his magic guy and / or signings woman. These were in stronger connection with the sky (bitch), soil (maa) and underworld (allimaa) nearer nature than other people. They knew that everything that moved had life and everything that had life had soul (water, wind, trees, grass, grain, turnips, clouds and stars with the moon and sun as the key). They were feeling good and able to communicate with these "beings." Even today, after shifting cultivation ceased more than 100 years ago, there are cultural characteristics that help to maintain an ethnic limit, such that weather forecast, healing and stopping of blood . Ax was by far the most important and most used tool, and it also caused most accidents. A great sorcerer had to have all his teeth intact (Lind 1946 70 Torp , Lästadius 1959 115 ).

The old sorcerers had to take a knife in his mouth to help . The weather prophets were knowledgeable, they could read the insects, birds and animal behavior by weather change, according to immemorial times inherited experiences. Ri - Kesten (Rehepappen in Estonia, Grängberg 125, Wiedemann 768) ,

Now the blood stand as poles in the ground and stumps of burned falls

Ole Eriksen Lehmoinen (1814-1905), used to say; Now the blood stand as poles in the ground and stumps of burned falls : "Nyt on veren seistävä kuin pylväät maassa ja kannot palaneissa nuotioissa". You should stand as the judge in hell, among other things, was also said by stopping of blood. A few Finnforest affiliations still considered to have supernatural abilities . They can manipulate nature, other living beings and even people. Arcane (old Finland) rattles and the remains of strange rituals are also still fragmentary preserved in some, but apparently no longer in active use . These, mostly secret specialties, can be traced back to swidden cultivation. Ri - Kesten was responsible for the rye in the ria, he decided when and how it was treated, and was therefore an important person in society.

The extended family, clan, was the basis for Finnforest population jurisdictions, social organization, economic benefits and other institutions.

In this mighty spruce forest had noite no longer the same function. Here one could pick and choose and use new spruce forest areas, so the use of the drum had fallen away completely. But there were many unwritten rules laid down in the rune poems, "res nullius cedit primo occupanti" (Vilkuna 1953).

Head of the family had replaced noite. He is leader of the swidden and peasant named in the written sources (Lindtorp 1948 12) (Olavsson 1963 87). Members of the swiden group were called axmen or lotmen , and they were usually farm boys, cotters, inderst and vacant finns. The written documents from court says nothing about swidden procedure or disputes between the Finns, because these were resolved locally without much community involvement. Erik Purainen was such a leader, who ensured that the Finns in Grue held together. He shifted right and wrong and punished severely if necessary (Lindtorp 1942 18).

Both in court protocols and land protocols we meet almost all of these leading figures as "Edsworne LavRättesmänd" selected by the judge. This must mean that the society was aware of and accepted the Finns' own local order and justice. Swidden leaders continued even after swidden cultivation ceased, but now with other local functions. Court protocols do not reflect not reflect the Finns bad reputation as killers, thieves and wizards with a mysterious superstition. Such characteristics depend on the society`s ignorance and thus anxiety and fear of the alien Finnish culture.

In the swidden culture people were accustomed to obey a powerful leader, and the skilled Noite was admired and looked up to. The dean of Karesuando, Lars Levi Lästadius (1800-1861) studied the Sami way of life closly and wrote their history, and became more interested in their religion / mythology "på öfvernaturliga väsenden och verkningar", "You get not imagine that most Saami were skilled in all witchcraft, it was only Noides (Sorcerers) that knew these magical secrets, for which the Saami were so far and and wide known. These Noida (mager, Spåmän or Trollkarlar) standing in high regard among the Saami, and they were the Nation´s clerisy or priests "(1997 Lästadius 1997 7).

Lästadius was such a leader as the head of the revival community

 

While he opposed the noida in his work by converting the heathen, he was a "Noida" himself as a revival preacher and founder of Lästadianism. Saami were traditionally used to have a leader to look up to, and Lästadius was such a leader as the head of the revival community.

Carl Axel Gottlund (1796 -1870) played a similar role in the Finnforest. His ”mission”work was at the same time, but on the ethnography area. Although he called the "Apostle", he was not a religious leader . But he was a significant ethnographer, who unfortunately was overshadowed by Lönnrot and others. Gottlund collected moste runes of them all, and it was he who documented Sampo - runes on to Finnforest . Shifting cultivation was on the wane during the 1800 - century, Gottlund took place as the "Noida" Finnforest people wanted and needed. He has strengthened the Finnforest people´s self esteem and ethnicity to this day, and will continue to do so.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Rugstakk / hollow and three muger. Photo of; Pilt V. 2002, Eesti rukki raamat, Tallinn, p.15.

Finnforest people was constantly looking for new plots in the forest

Finnforest people was constantly looking for new plots in the forest, and new dwellings on the left swidden continued, regardless of what the authorities might think about the case. More settlers on the Grue Finnforest were repeatedly exposed to forest owners s violence. Forest owners in Christiania would retain its cheap labor in forestry , and new settlements were demolished and burned, if they did not fit into the forest owner's plan. But, "The forest manager (Ole Gulbrandsen) had barley left the place, before the finn again took his right to occupie the cottage" (1986 Gottlund 1986 291).

Emigrate to America

Note the phrase right to occupie. This is according to the Finns own jurisdictions. In the spring of 1818 had several tenant farmers including from Skåkberget and Furuberget sold all his and gone to Christiania to emigrate to America. But the forest owner, the Ankerske Fideikomiss, prevented the journey of fear that others would follow. Back on the break Finnskogen would tempt holders have not an equivalent to inhysinger and paupers, had it not been staying for the local "social system", which provided for their establishment even under the threat against the helpers to fines of 50 speciedaler. The swidden clan needed their skilled axmen, so it was for the local public benefit, that they were taken care of when they returned home. There were also paupers who had fallen outside the system, but it was accepted that these went begging path. It would have been interesting to compare the Finns' own social system and the norwegian society, but it would lead us far away into "huuhtaheitti" in this context.

As the timber increased in value beyond the 1700's, disputes arose as the coart protocols can tell. In 1720-1730's there were many uncertainties about loggings , but most often, the parties, Christiania merchants and farmers, agreed to share the timber sale, "that they should have the half of the timber, pine measured sawing timber" delivered Skasdammen. Measurement of boundaries and border contracts were created, and many contracts for forestry and pasturing were signed. The unmatriculated dwellings (torp), who was ever established, the "Royal Decree of 6 May 1754 for new farms – farms creation and building in Norway" recorded by the surveyor's Capitain FC Knoff in the years 1752 to 1758. Knoff on befalf of the State to give a 20-year tax exemption and 30 thalers to start for more effective contribution. Where there was some semblance of law, the dwelling was accepted as new, even if it had existed for decades. A left swidden could easily be detected as a start for more effective commenced. Reeve comment could be, "that started clearing, but left the place" or "condominium space was to the detriment". The state did not find out that the finnish culture had its own expansion method. The regulation was completely unnecessary here on Finnforest and seats forest was already taxed by the farmers. Knoff had barely been created any new farms, and when the scheme was also abolished in 1777. Interest chamber has type of 7.nov. 1767 even written that Knoff was illegal to "give out Böxel".

Beyond 1700 - were established contracts between forest owners in Christiania and farmers / finns. Forest owners reserves all timber products harvested in the forest to the user / finns are "allowed to use all swidden forest, pasture for their cattle at spesial places without money or something therefore to pay, but than themselves stay away from the places with their swidden, where suitable pine forest are growing or grew up forest are standing under the real punishment for such forest by swidden would become damaged "(Gräsberget 1733). Certain contracts concerning the sale of timber for money against the mortgage on the farm (Skjelver 1727).

Such ended sometimes with foreclosures. Much of the Finnforest came under Anker family ownership, but by Bernt Anker's death in 1805, the family business turned into Fideikommiss, which was dissolved in 1819. There are still stories about how strict Ankers people were against the Finns. The transfers were towards the end of 1700 -'s common to try to limit the shifting cultivation by such formulations., "Swidden land of a skin's guilt in the farm" (Berger 1774). But shifting cultivation could continue unimpeded as long's nearest pine forest was last in peace, "- not can be laid down such forest for swidden that now is useful, either can be useful as timber forest" (Rotberget 1737).

 

After the sale of Anker Estate, the swidden cultivation increased from 1825. The Finns were often sued for illegal swidden, but announced inspection was never realized. The usual explanation from the Finns was that it was "huuhta heittiö": waste huuhta giving no crops. But during a trial in 1862 was an inspection held and the report states that the Commission passed eight swidden falls on the way to the appropriate case.

Common use of the forest fell away at the replacement of pastures and forests

The first Act of 1821, and here it is claimed that this must be done within 8 years. If the replacement does not occur, increasing the land tax , "as a result af replacement, any of us accordance himself to his now alotted plots or parts with all kind of use and harvesting, af what name it can be, and not touch or harvest anything in any elses loted forest part. ----- It's for all of us free to cut forest on his own loted part under the promice not to have this part fenched longer than three following years, after which time it again has to be free pasture" (1824). This point (no.11) in provisions for the replacement shows that swidden denial was not taken seriously in Grue Finnforest. Finns were repeatedly sued for illegal swidden until the second half of the 1800s. It did apparently not help that swidden denial was repeated and emphasized time and again. Those who would enforce the ban on behalf of the authorities were often complicit in swidden, and therefore had the advantage of the continued. It is common to find that there has been staying swidden three times in the same forest plot. This can be seen in the humus layer, where one often sees that the last burning has been staying at the end of the 1800s and in north sides into the 1900s, for here was timber transport uphill not profitable. In such steep hills the village peasants hired the swidden group to burn separately.This also occurred in the diary farming forest and the so-called home woods that often lay near the village. On good quality woodland a new generation spruce forest was growing up after 80 - 100 years, but the second and third time swidden did not give such a large crop as virgin spruce forest soil. After 1900, there was little swidden in Grue Finnforest. In early July 1887 Petrus Smith made a journey to Finnforest, "On the way (with karriol to Gräsmark) could I understand, that I was approaching places where Finns lived, resorting to to the sides of the road seemed to be more burnt swidden plots" (Nordmann 1913 95).

The last swidden I know of was in 1915 below Kalneset by Rögde.

Shifting cultivation is still practiced (jhum) by some "primitive" peoples in Asia, Africa and South America, but most of them are forced to quit. The European colonies put an end to shifting cultivation. Large plantations for the industry in Europe was an effective stop for the local culture. The colonists ruled, and local swidden were referred to areas that could not be exploited by Europeans. The locals lost the opportunity to its traditional use of the forest. But some people could continue. Syrjens made swidden to ca.1870. They cultivated rye and got usually 50-80 fold (Manninen 1932 274).

Today the forest is saved for the benefit of the European / American modern industrial destruction of vast areas of the "third world", and native tribes referred to the replacement of the dollar. What is happening in Asia under Chinese and Russian leadership is also frightening. But the ethnic old shifting cultivation is no threat to the forest anymore.

Weather Forecast

From ancient times weather change was confirmed by observation of the cold front. When the cold fron go by, it is an electric change in the air. The electromagnetic jonisation in the athmosfaire alter from positive to negative charge. This change will be some time before the rain. An experienced noite was able to calculate how long it would take before it rained, considering wind, cloud cover and other observations he made. This electromagnetic changes can be made visible on a vibrating drumhead (tambo, sampo). Fine grained oakbark-flour (tamppu, tammipuu), was strewn over a large tight drumhead, which was set in vibration by repeated singing or humming (huutaa, kirkua) on vocals - sound: "ohm - ohm - ohm - ohmen (ahmen) ". This ohm - sound was sung on the drum's own frequency that gives regular fluctuations / wave - movements on the skin. This vibrating skin collects the flour to some, for the human eye, obscure curved lines, and these lines bend when the song continues. The lines clearly show the transition from positive to negative jonisering in the air. When they switch from concave to convex lines, they pass the straight line, which is a condition in which a clearly readable image emerges. The image is a composite regulärt pattern of triangles of different sizes inside one another. But then curving lines to the other edge, and the picture is again unclear and not readable to the human eye. This clear triangular shape represents the neutral point, the transition in the air from positive to negative charge attractions, neutral state, and the timing of the next low pressure system bringing rain, can thus be calculated accurately. Experience and musicianship was necessary to succeed in this complicated process. That's probably why the international expression raffle strains. As tombola is a lottery where the winning ticket is drawn from a rotating drum.

Aum / om is the universal sound

Aum / om is the universal sound, symbol - the word of God. Aum in Veda - poetry, the sacred word Hum of the Tibetans, Amin among Muslims, Amen of the Egyptians, Greeks, Romans, Jews and Christians. Aum is the universal sound, arising from the invisible cosmic vibration, God is the creator. Paramahansa Yogananda.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Judith Cornell, 1994, Mandala s.57. Computer generated image.

Drum skin s (kirjokansi) triangular pattern we find in "primitive" art around the world

Similarly weather forecast (omen, pühär-ohman) has its presence in shifting cultivation. The triangular pattern was the signal noite needed. Fragments of this complex ritual has survived until today, and can be recognized as part of the modern religious ceremonies, music, dance, literature, and ornamentation. For example mantra, sacred formula in Hindu, Buddhist, Tantric and Tibetan.

It is also appreciated in philosophical direction, it represents the energy of the universe based on the mystical diagrams and provides a main pattern of ornamental art, which art of Yoga is an example.

 

This geometric pattern (yantra) is a visual equivalent to the primal sound OM or AM, the singers original sound (mantra).

The original sound (OM) has a visual correspond in bindu, the point, the model for the mandala, the circle.The original sound has been described by philosophers as the purest manifestation of the sound without any frequency, motion or vibration, the primal sound, or the original selfmade sound from the beginning (Mookerjee 1975 30). The magic power of the sound is often described as "word", as Tao in Taoism, as Brahma in the Hindu religion and God in the Bible. "In the beginning was the word and the word was with God, and the word was God" (Gospel of John 1.1).

The drum has always been staying the most common instrument second only to the human voice

It comes in a variety of flavors, and has been known and used at all times in virtually all cultures. More than 1600 variants are presented in The Grove Dictionary of Musical Instruments (Blades 1984 610).Madala, mridanga, p(a)uke, samba, tambo (ur) and trom(me) to name a few. Trom this instrument is called in the North-European languages and tambour in southern Europe. That drum skin vibrate by sound; ganna, seid lätir, galdr (Fritzner 1877 181), was the custom among the Saami in the past. A membranofon - way to evoke mysterious characters, runes on the drum, bumba (Scheffer 1673 137). To turn on the drum is not mentioned in the sagas or in the older literature on the finns (Fritzner 1877 161). Ganna was framfört of shaman / noite, but this ceased in the Middle Ages, while also shifting cultivation. The vibration was made by beating on the drum during the performances of gandreid / hahmleypur, which now could be performed by a woman, volve.

Stationair agriculture was far stronger poisoned by ergot than shifting cultivation had ever been, and while the shamans were fewer, the number of volves were more. There were several more stationary grain fields, and thus more common with the collection of black grains, meldröie, nõgitera, from the grain fields.

Lesbian women

 

Lesbian women had use for medicine for her work as wise women, doctor. Ergot was finely ground and mixed with butter for medical use. This ointment was a useful droge when it contained a small dose of ergot. But a stronger mix was also used by the old witch herself, for greasing the broomstick every time she went out for a ride. The witch ointmented broomstick rubbed against the thin skin of the vulva, led not only to orgasm, but also to an appropriate narcotic state. A seasoned witch could grade the amount of toxin.

"The witch with the broom"

We know her, "The witch with the broom." There was a growing drug problem, which was at its peak during the Little Ice Age, and it brought with it a number of witches to court. Drums (kansi) that produces sound from tight membranes can be switched on, pulled in, rubbed, or sung upon. Sang-membranes vibrate at that screams (kirkua / huutaa) or sing (kanta / kannel) against them, as kazoo. Drum skin gets energy from the voice that transforms the skin's own frequency. The drum has been used both for a variety of ceremonial and ritual actions, and are attributed magical powers. Many types of drums has been used staying far back in time (Blades 1984 601).

One type of drums that are attuned to the voice, was developed in Turkey after the earliest migration of Indo-European tribes of Asia Minor and westward all the way to Spain. There it is called the zambomba, and in the Basque tambor. In Catalonia and the Balearic Islands accompagneres song still today with this instrument during special events.

An old Indian name for the drum is mridanga

It is used in the ancient literature. Mridanga means "to have part of the earth" or "mud-drum," which point back to the camp of the pasta that was used for tuning of the drum. The tuning was conducted by using this paste, consisting of clay, flour and water (sometimes also cooked rice, ash and / or iron chips). The paste was attached to the drum skin at specific locations to lower the tune to the right (Kaufmann 1967 220).

The only written source about the early mridanga, is the dramatic action Nàtyasàstra, a Sanskrit text on dance, drama and music, learned about the saga Bharata. year 100 AD. This work provides some details of a compound called mridanga drum in the chapter on membranofones.These scattered data reflects the repetitive rhythm of the text, but partly also the composition as a higher unit, the three puskarer, rain clouds, a blue lotus and Dyaus, water reservoir, the lost drum, panava and bowl-drum dardura. Their origin is attributed to the saga Svàti, polar star, which made them using the immortal blacksmith Visvakarman. He imitated the gods drums for meditation at the rain strength on lotus leaves in the monsoon season (Dick Powers, Geekie 1984 694).

From ca.1200 to 700 BC the Frygeans had their kingdom in central Anatolia, befor they withdrew to the east. Cybele was their protector of fire; the mother of mountains, who ran across the sky in a chariot harnessed with two lions and made sure the sun. She is sculpted with a tambourine, drum in hand, and she was worshiped by male ecstatic dancing and drumming (Korybantes, Pyrrhichios).

The excavation of Catalhöyük in Turkey in the 1960`s, it was found small statuettes of clay in the many cultural layers, which are dated from 7500 to 5700 BC. Among these was a female figure seated on a throne with lions as armrests. This was one of several small figures, which were found in the city's grain bins. The place has had up to eight culture layers with abandonment in between. During these periods the forest has grown in range again, before the next settlement. The upper layers of the findings can be interpreted as stationairy field cultivation and domestication of animals.

Pliny the Elder (23-79 AD) wrote

 

Pliny the Elder (23-79 AD) wrote that emmerhweat (far, adoremus) was held in honour. Vesta was the Roman goddess of fire and the home herd, she was celebrated 7 – 15 June, and the holy eternal fire was renewed annually on March 1. Vestalinnene provided it, and they made a paste by mixing crushed boiled emmerhweat with salt; Mola Salsa (saltmel), trolldeig and immolation. When the emperor Constantius II. ordered the statue of Victoria and altar removed from the Senate 356 AD, attracted the wrath of those non-Christians, who would keep the old gods and rituals. It was at this altar senators sweared the oath to the Roman Empire. The altar was restored, for it had led to anger the gods, and both pestilence and famine broke out. The church claimed that both the Senate and now Christianity was in danger, and the battle ended with the altar was removed for good. The Christians were also heared, when Emperor Theodosius forbade the renewal of Vesta's fire in the year 391 AD.

Precursors of Indo - European languages were spoken in the fourth millennium BC in South - Eastern Europe. Among other Hittites and later Frygeans had their residence in central Anatolia. The possible home for a late Neolithic culture is the low mountains and plains from the north - west of the Caucasus to the Caspian Sea (Friedrich 1966 27). Swidden cultures depends on a well-developed language; svedjekulturer can thus be described as literal cultures with sophisticated language yoke, in which new words are formed with ease . When Finnish was not understood, it was often formed new written German and Scandinavian words based on sound and / or meaning of the term. For example, the Finnish immigrants brought with them a snerpelöst grains. They called it "The heavens grain" because it would originate from Himalaja (Lindtorp 1946 90).

In the "Finnbygden" 22 (1): 12, 1969 A.Nystedt writes about the grains. This grain was considered to denote the sacred. It was cooked as whole grains, and served as hollyday food. It was sought after for its good taste and its great golden seeds, which seemed good in blood pai, soup and other delicacies. On Svenshöjden in Viggen was told me in the autumn 1956, they had cultivated this kind of grain in an enclosure (aed) immediately below the old cottage. The grain ears were crunchy, the early maturity made its grain fall as lightly on the ground.Therefore, this small field was well fenshed. They called it also "jumalakorn". Jumala is an old poetic word for heaven, the church also uses; jumala teenistus is worship, jumalik is heavenly. "Ära põlga jumalavilja": heavens grain is not to be despised (Eesti Vanasõnad, 1983 9173, Ahokas 2006 ). Taiwaan-ohra is the same (Lönnrot 1930 652). The word "heavens barley" is the same in German, "himmelsgerste".

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Old farm, Svenshöjden in Viggen, Varmland. Photo: Astrid Reponen 1930. SU 334:26 Museiverket, Helsinki.

Rune - Poem

A rune has five syllables in each line and the alliterative line; Vaka Vanha Väinämöinen (Steady old Väinämöinen) --- singing his holy songs. Runes were an important help for memory, but togther with arable farming came a paradigm shift also for poetry. Runes got a new name and function, but the old form was retained. In the Nordic and the German language it came to be "vise" in the 14-1600's. Song of Solomon was, "Saalomoni korkea veisu" and "ülem viis" in Finnish and Estonian. Great singer and the sharp Väinämöinen the Kalevala, Vanemoine in Kalevipoeg was spelled in different ways. "Lind ei laula viisita": the bird does not sing without it being a show of it. "Igal linnul oma viis" means any bird is singing with its beak (Eesti Vanasõnad 1983, 5918 5900). Although the word vise is song (laul). Vise was considered a show popular, primitive and inferior cultural expression than the song until mid 1900 - and in some places even longer.

A detailed introduction to the cultural context is often necessary to understand the meaning of a folk song, vise. The number five (viisi) was a special number, the sum of the first and the last digit in front of five (1+4) and the sum of the two in between (2+3) are both equal to five. It is written dissertations on the number five. A song (vise) has often five verses that tell a story or describe a course of events, and often have a moral or political motivation.

I choose once more "The old woman with the stick." This vise has five syllables in each line and five lines in each verse, and also five verses in the version I know. Visa describes the old woman in ergot intoxication, but so she is married in the fifth verse. Milkmaid at the dairy farm had both the rod, stick, spatula and turu at her disposal, but then a guy occured and engaged her. There are several songs, viser, about Kari and Ola, farmers in the valley. "Mary and John, they were a couple of people had no kettle, but cooked in a hulk ---". The vise smith was probably a Nordmarka forest - finn. "The old woman with the stick" expostulating with valley woman's excessive abuse of ergot - ointment as an erotic stimulus, and the vise live today without ergot; Old woman with a stick high up in the Haka Valley eight pots sour cream, four Mark of butter that was made by Kari, Ola had hay Old woman with a stick.

Old woman with a rod

jumped over the stream

then fell into the water,

and she was wet

then she went home,

then cooked porridge

Old woman with a rod.

 

Old woman with a wooden spoon

set high up in the hill

then she was avare of the Trolls

there bloody was the guys

before the elections here

Old woman with a wooden spoon.

 

Old woman with a turua

set high up in the pine

then came a hare jumping by

He said, you are left up there

Old woman with a turua.

 

The old woman she struggled

then came a man,

and engaged her will you be woman,

shall I be the man

will you make the coffee, I will fetch water

The old woman she struggled.

 

 

Norwegian folk tales have adopted many elements from swidden finns. P.Chr. Asbjörnsen had heard many tales and legends from the Nordmarka forest and Solör before he went out on his grant in 1851. He writes: "The deep forests with dairy farms and mountain ranges gave favorably conditions for folk poetry satisfaction and flowering." It has been argued that the language difference and hostility has prevented the spread of poetry, but I can not find anything that indicates that this is correct. In any case, the transition of poetry from Finnforest to "Norway" is obvious and provable. It may be mentioned here only a few scattered examples: "Soria Moria" is Finnish and means a great stone wall that term for the king's palace, in contrast to the small timber cottabe for the common man. "Askeladden" is descended from the verb askeldama - askeldad(a)en, which means to wander here and there, step by step, "Emäntimäisen saanut; Vaimo vieras kun Venakko - Ei sano Emon sanoja - Käy ei äitin askelilla, - Virkko viesahan sanoja - Käypi armon askelille "(Kaukonen 1984 I, 63)

Stepmother language; Lady stranger who captured, say not a mother's words, If not with a parent step, outer a stranger words, Taking of faltering step. "Tyrihans" is Too(be)r - Ants of the brave / stately Ants / Hans. Story of the fox as a shepherd, I'll have you as a shepherd, said the woman after hearing the fox lure, "Dill - dall - holom" fox would lure the animals to him with solicitation of traditional hunter's game: I dul - dulom - dulom - idulle, i hul - hulom - hulom – i hulle. Smörbukk who would go out to see why the dog "Gold Tooth" is barking, he may be a finnforester, which was used to a dog named Gultan meaning the dearest frend (dog). "Metsän kultanen kuningas" (Kaukonen 1984 II, 344).

When the children play they often use - " elle melle "as is, "ellän vielä" not one more. "Ellin velli; Elli keitti vellii - Omalla kapustallansa - Omist` otrajauhoistansa; - Velli kaatu karsinahan - Ellin lapset lakkimahan, - Elli itse itkemähän - Muupere murajamahan "(Kaukonen 1984 I, 224).

Elli's gruel; Elli boiled gruel - with special equipment - without barley flour – gruel pot overturned - Elli's children began to lick - Elli began to cry - the rest of the family grumbled. Akka bakka bunkarakka etla metla sjong dong fili fong isa bisa topp ; is " Ukko hakka puunkarakka etäällä mettä "- The man chopping the tree south of the forest. Ellinga vellinga vaterlands gutten - "Ellän vielä vattiansukka" why not a felt sock more. "Brum baskeni bumba" is he struck on the drum. Snip snap snute, is "nips naps nouha" a little schnapps in a bowl / collect, select, pick out. " Sanat sulavat suussa " is the words melt is in the mouth. Funny finnish formulations, robust rune-rows that reconcile, sharpened and strengthened by the song, made to be read out.

 

 

 

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Copyright ©Per Martin Tvengsberg This publication may be quoted and used. Copyright rules dictate that the source reference is given. Author's address: Per Martin Tvengsberg, Warangu Mois EE-46231 Varangu Estonia, E-mail: warangu@gmail.com. Publisher: Finnish Norwegian Forest Museum. N0-2639 Grue Finnskog. E-mail: post@skogfinskmuseum.no